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Research Review: Magazine Management and Economics
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The Electronic Journal of Communication / La Revue Electronique de Communication
***** WORTHINGTON ****** EJC/REC Vol. 4, Nos. 2-4, 1994 ****

RESEARCH REVIEW: MAGAZINE MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS


Robert Worthington
New Mexico State University


        Abstract:  Magazines are different than other
     print media because:  the delivery system is more
     leisurely; they better reflect changing tastes and
     interests of our society; and magazines offer
     advertisers a viable advertising vehicle.  While
     magazines are different, they have not been able
     to avoid the delcine in circulation and
     advertising revenues experienced by other print
     media.  To survive, the magazine publishing
     industry is attempting to maintain editorial
     quality; expand in ways other than increasing ad
     pages; charge readers more; look toward
     international expansion; and take advantage of
     emerging technology.  Against this backdrop a
     review of research on magazine management has been
     conducted.  The findings are:  little has been
     published on the topic in academic journals; most
     citations in published research are from business
     and trade publications; research in the area is
     being conducted and presented at conferences but
     not published; most management research covers
     industry trends rather than specific industry
     topics; case histories are published but most
     outside of academic journals; and there is not a
     solid base of conceptual and theoretical magazine
     management research available in the literature.


                     Introduction

     Some in the magazine publishing business view the term
magazine management as an oxymoron.[1] This may explain why
little magazine research is published in the more widely
circulated mass communications academic journals. Media
management research articles abound in the professions of
television and newspapers, but scant information is
available for the field of magazine management. Research on
theories, concepts, or the practice of managing magazines in
most communications academic journals is limited. On the
other hand the topic is found in media management textbooks
[2], the business and trade press[3], and other books on the
profession.[4] The most prevalent source of magazine
management studies are unpublished research papers presented
at various academic mass communications conferences.

     This paper discusses the current status of management
concerns in the magazine publishing industry and then
reviews pertinent research that has been conducted and
presented or published. Conclusions will be offered with
suggestions for further research.

                      Background

     Magazines are seen as different from other print media
because of three unique characteristics: (a) Since magazines
are not published as often as newspapers, the delivery
system can be more leisurely; (b) Magazines reflect changing
tastes and interests of different segments of United States
society; and (c) national and regional magazines still offer
advertisers a viable advertising vehicle in spite of
television.[5]

     In recent years the business of magazine publishing has
become a financial minefield. Circulation and advertising
revenues remain sluggish with no major improvements visible
on the horizon. But by mid-1992 magazine editors and
publishers, gathering in Bermuda for the annual American
Magazine Conference, thought an upturn was forthcoming. Ad
revenues for the first half of 1992 had risen 8 percent over
the same period in 1991; better than newspapers' 3 percent.
Magazines' shares of ad revenues had gone up 17 percent.
Optimism was high.

     A 1993 study by David Sumner examining circulation
revenues and advertising revenues from 1985-1991 reported ad
rates and ad income increasing at a much greater rate than
circulation revenues. A special report in the October 11,
1993 issue of _Advertising Age_ reveals that expectations
for a continued escalation of magazine industry earnings are
not materializing. While that is the bad news, the good
news is that the market has apparently bottomed out. The
soft TV and newspaper markets leave magazines up-beat by
comparison. The future is expected to be flat at its worse,
possibly with a slight increase at its best.[6]

     American Society of Magazine Editors president Steve
Shepard (also editor-in-chief of _Business Week_) stated the
industry's solution to the problem is "to maintain editorial
quality and to get expansion in ways other than from
additional ad pages. That is, to charge the reader more...to
look for other areas of expansion such as international; and
to take advantage of emerging technologies to develop new
products."[7]

     Shepard's comment on technology is seen by some in the
industry as a major driving force for magazines of the
future. Computer and satellite technology, for example,
allows _Sports Illustrated_ to accept ads on Monday for an
issue which is distributed on Wednesday.[8] This same
technology allows publishers to locate and target narrowly
defined audiences and design specific interest magazines for
small but loyal follower groups. In fact this trend has even
led marketeers to launch their own publications designed to
promote their own products. In the trade this is known as
"custom publishing."[9]

     Changing magazine tastes are chronicled on a regular
basis by the head of the University of Mississippi's
Magazine Journalism program, Samir Husni, who writes and
publishes the annual _Guide to New Magazines_. In spite of
economic downturns magazines will continue to be an
important method of mass communications. Each year new
magazines come and both new and old magazines disappear. It
is the best medium designed to present detailed information
covering a diverse range of topics in a timely and easily
portable fashion. Additionally, in today's world of
electronic computerization utilizing desk-top publishing
technology and direct mail consumer lists, a print
entrepreneur with a minimum of capital and maximum of
creative ideas can readily become a magazine publisher; most
fail, but some do live on.[10]

            The Magazine Publishing Process

     While specific duties may vary from magazine to
magazine, basically the process of publishing a magazine is
split into two major divisions: the business side of the
house and the editorial side.

     The person in charge of running the magazine as a
business entity is the publisher; responsible for the
magazine managerial functions of finance, marketing,
personnel, operations, and production. Essentially those
functional departments under the publisher are charged with
the fiscal management of the magazine; the business aspects
of running the magazine (payroll, invoices, billings,
accounting, etc.); advertising sales; promoting the
magazine; circulation and subscriptions; and physically
producing the magazine.[11]

     The other side of the publishing company contains the
editorial functions of creating the magazine. This area
includes editors, staff writers, artists, photographers,
layout people, and designers. While not part of the staff,
a crucial adjunct to the regular editorial personnel are
contributing editors and writers and free-lancers. The
functions of the editorial staff are to plan the issues
(usually up to a year in advance), create the editorial
content, put together the pages, and prepare the entire
magazine for publication.[12]

     With today's computer technology magazines are able to
reduce full-time editorial staff significantly. Many
slick-looking, 80-to-100-page magazines can be put together
and a graphic design artist experienced in magazine layout
can put out a 100-page magazine on a monthly basis. Most of
the writing will be done by free-lancers. One editor
assigns the work and monitors progress. The assistant
editor prepares the stories for publication and the artist
arranges the pages. The free-lance work comes in by modem,
is transmitted to the editor's computer for editing. Next,
via an internal computer system, articles go to the graphic
artist who creates the page layout using various type
styles, sizes and colors. Photographs are electronically
scanned and put on the appropriate page in the computer.
Quickly an entire magazine can be created this way.
Advertising copy is handled by the advertising sales people,
again using the computer process. The completed
computer-generated issue is sent by modem to a computer
operated printing plant which may be across the continent.
Modern technology makes possible the immediate assemblage of
a magazine with almost no staff. As previously mentioned,
most advances within the magazine publishing industry can be
attributed to changing technologies more than any other
factors.

             Magazine Management Research

     Most published research involving the magazine
publishing industry involves output issues rather than input
issues. This means that research about magazines examines
the product itself instead of the process needed to produce
the magazine. Many research articles involving magazines
seem to be comparative studies such as advertising trends
over time or how similar magazines report on the same topic.
Published research articles on the management process
inherent in magazine publishing are missing. On the other
hand, research articles on management in the newspaper and
television industries appear frequently in academic
communications journals.

     In 1990 Caroline Dow reported on the progress of
magazine research.[13] She believed not enough scholarly
research about magazines was being done. A previous study by
Peter Gerlach in 1987 reported that from 1963 through 1983
only 116 magazine research articles were published in
_Journalism Quarterly_ representing six percent of the total
research articles published.[14] Of these articles, 11
percent or 13 articles addressed magazine economic
(business) issues. Marcia Prior-Miller though, in a ten-year
study from 1977-1987, found that there were more magazine
research studies published than was commonly perceived.[15]

     Does this mean research on magazines, especially
management, is not being conducted?  No, research in this
area is being conducted, but much of it is not being
published. The main reason for this may be attributed to a
lack of an appropriate outlet. Mainstream communications
academic journals publishing research often will not accept
narrowly focused research manuscripts simply because the
topic has little appeal to the majority of the journals'
readers. There is no academic journal, at this time, devoted
to media management studies, although the AEJMC Media
Management and Economics division is exploring this
possibility. There is the _Journal of Media Economics_
published by Lawrence Earlbaum Associates which publishes
articles on the economic aspects of mass media as well as
economic policy issues affecting the media industry. In the
past three issues no articles on magazine research were
noted.

     An outlet for research in areas of magazines is the
numerous books published by Greenwood Press of Westport, CT.
These references cover a variety of magazine topics such as
_American Mass-Market Magazines_, _Trade Publications in the
U.S._, or _Sources on the History of Women's Magazines_.
Usually they contain compilations of research on magazines
which fall within certain categories and, as each magazine
is described, information on the management of that magazine
is also presented. These books are not published in great
quantities and can be expensive.

     An examination of research presentations at the annual
AEJMC meetings for the first four years of the 1990s
reveals the following papers were presented in areas of
magazine management.[16] In 1990 the magazine division
presented 14 papers with only one on management, a study of
distribution channels for magazines. The media management
division presented eight papers with none on magazine
management. In 1991 the magazine division presented 16
papers with two on management: the impact of microcomputers
on magazine design and an examination of magazine staff
salaries. Media management had 13 papers with none on
magazine management. In 1992 the magazine division presented
10 papers with three related to management; one examined the
repositioning of a trade publication, another discussed
classifying magazines into types, and the third paper
studied why magazines flourished or died in the last half of
the 1980s. Media management presented 17 papers with none on
magazine management. Last year, 1993, revealed a record high
of 20 papers presented by the magazine division with six
papers on management topics. These were: an examination of
the American magazine publishing industry; writer/editor
relationships; roles of city magazines; magazine
editors: personalities or managers; editors and the writing
process; and who pays for a magazine: consumers or
advertisers?  Media management presented 19 papers with none
on magazine management. Within the magazine division the
recent trend has been an increase in both magazine research
and magazine management research.

     Most information on management within the magazine
publishing industry will be found in business and trade
periodicals such as _Folio_, _Advertising Age_, _The Wall
Street Journal_, _Time_, _Business Week_, _Fortune_, and
others. Current industry trends as well as in-depth, highly
researched articles, such as case studies, are often found
in these publications.

      A Review of Research in Magazine Management

     Most research in magazine management can be categorized
as fitting into one of three areas: trend studies, case
studies, or specific topic studies. Trend studies focus on
overall trends in the magazine publishing industry or
specific trends such as circulation or advertising. Case
studies typically are in-depth research projects which
concentrate on a particular magazine or magazine publishing
company. These studies examine the business from an
historical perspective describing what the magazine or
company did over time to explain why the magazine is doing
so well or how its demise came about. Specific topic studies
tend to examine a distinct issue related to the management
process of a magazine. It might analyze the pay of magazine
staff, or editorial-advertising relationships, or how
computers and desk top technology are impacting on putting
out a magazine. Each type of study, in its own way,
contributes to the overall knowledge of magazine management.

Trend Studies

     A market report prepared in 1979 by Benjamin Compaine
documented how the then century-old publishing form had
evolved from the primary mass medium in American society to
special interest or limited audience publications.[17]
Magazines, as Compaine pointed out, had been replaced by
television. He described how, before TV, magazines could
rely on more leisurely delivery systems and offer
advertisers national coverage. The number of new titles
since 1950 had increased by 38 percent but for many
magazines circulation had not grown and for some it had even
gone down. The changing face of the country with an
increased desire for more recreational time and material
things, job specialization, new freedoms and tastes, a
better educated public, and a consumer-oriented citizenry
have created different challenges for magazine managers.

     What this means is different for editors than for
publishers. Editors see this as an opportunity to present
new and different information; a task fulfilled by preparing
more articles by different writers. For publishers, this
translates into the magazine being a delivery system to tap
into a specific audience, a target market attractive to
advertisers. Compaine's study presented data dividing
magazines into groups according to circulation size (type of
audience) and editorial content (active or passive). Using
his category placement system magazine publishers could
better understand how to create a special interest
publication that would better meet the needs and demands of
special interest groups. This understanding would be crucial
for magazine survival into the 1980s.

     Kathleen Endres in 1988 examined the impact of the
external environment (recession, inflation, unemployment,
deregulation, and technology) on the publishing
business.[18] She found that survival in the business world
relied on knowledge and information that leaders and
executives need to make the right decisions. A new market
was born, specialized business publications. Again magazine
management must be in a position to recognize and act on
changes in the market place in order to continue to produce
a product that is in demand.

     Mayo and Pasadeos, in a 1991 study, reported on changes
in editorial content of business magazines related to
international stories from 1964 to 1988.[19] While the
relative amount of international news stories did not change
in the three decades, more stories were published at the end
of the period but the stories were shorter. The findings
again demonstrated a shifting story focus over time which
implies management must constantly be aware of changing
consumer demands regarding editorial content.

     Worthington, in 1991, examined the external environment
and reported on what issues and concerns would affect
magazine managers in the 1990s.[20] This study presented
data describing the battered status of the magazine industry
and how changing financial, personnel, legal, and
technological environments affect the industry. Suggestions
were presented recommending ways publishers could prepare to
successfully withstand the rigors of adverse changes. One
problem noted by Worthington was the lack of published
research on problems media managers face.

     A 1992 study by Marcia Prior-Miller, a major effort
which began in 1987, described a reconciliation of the five
approaches commonly used to classify magazines in
communications literature.[21] This in-depth study presented
an excellent historical review of magazine industry research
conducted since the 1960s. She also offered a well developed
discussion that argued that a problem with current magazine
research is a lack of sufficient past research upon which to
create and develop a strong theoretical base. Part of the
problem, as Prior-Miller saw it, was a lack of congruence in
classifying magazines. How, she asked, can research on
magazines be conducted if magazines cannot be uniformly
categorized across studies?  Her list of end notes is
similarly impressive in breadth and depth.

     A trend study done by Endres in 1993 looked at
publishing in the consumer, specialized business, health,
and agricultural categories in the 1990s.[22] Endres found
that there has been a shift in types of periodicals
published. The health and agriculture fields have become
more specialized and in business and consumer areas certain
publications are enjoying increased popularity. Publishing
is becoming geographically decentralized, moving away from
the East Coast, especially for books launched since 1980.
Frequency cycles are decreasing with fewer issues per year
gaining popularity. Overall circulation of most types of
magazines is down except for business areas. Magazine
topics are constantly shifting.

     Another area of trend studies concerns advertising and
reader audiences. Vincent Norris in 1982 found that the old
belief that magazines are made possible only through
advertising revenues was not supported by current data.[23]
His research presented a good overview of the economic
realities of magazine publishing (as does numerous sections
of Robert Picard's _Media Economics_). Another study
examining advertising by Stout, Wilcox, and Greer in 1989
found an interesting trend in the increased use of
advertorials.[24] The authors studied the emerging field of
advertorials and found that usage between 1980 and 1986
increased while overall ad pages were decreasing. In 1986
revenues from advertorials were $116 million with some
magazines earning 14 percent of ad revenue from
advertorials. Their paper also provided a brief but
interesting background on the history of advertorials.

     The spending of advertising dollars on magazine space
is obviously related to the readership of the magazines.
David Abrahamson conducted a 1991 study of gender analysis
of readers for U.S. consumer magazines.[25] Abrahamson
defined consumer magazines and discussed advertising changes
as related to the number of readers, type of ads, and the
type of audience. He found that over two-thirds of consumer
magazines are gender specific (i.e., 60 percent or more of
readers of one gender), with more publications created
specifically for males but having smaller circulation than
do women's magazines. This information can be important
determinants for advertisers in deciding how much money to
spend and what type of ads to run.

Case Studies

     Case studies provide excellent ways to learn how to and
how not to run a business. Definitive examples of
successful and unsuccessful publishing companies can be
found in academic journals, business publications,
newspapers, or unpublished research papers. The cases
typically showcase the publishing company as a business
organization, such as Roger Hall's research in 1976 on the
rise and fall of the old _Saturday Evening Post_.[26] Other
cases focus on a key player in a publishing company[27], or
a comparative study is done on several similar magazines or
publishers to highlight how successful people or businesses
are able to appropriately manage their talents and resources
to succeed in enterprises where others have failed.[28]

     Case studies utilize a similar approach whether the
focus is on the business or the person. They present an
historical perspective to set the stage and establish a base
of understanding to better see how managerial
decision-making evolved to lead the entity into success or
failure. As a management training tool, case studies are
seen as one of the best methods to allow readers to work
through the process of organizing and analyzing data in
order to select a course of action to correct problems or
move forward into the future.

     While business schools have used this concept
(pioneered at Harvard Business School) for decades, it has
been recently gaining more acceptance in media management
courses.[29]

Specific Topic Studies

     As previously explained these studies tend to focus on
a specific topic of managerial concern or interest. This
type of research is the least prevalent in areas of magazine
management. There are not necessarily relationships between
the various studies published. Many examine issues or
concerns facing the editorial side of magazines. Some
researchers may argue these studies reflect the editorial or
education process of writing technicalities. Others can
justifiably point out that these also are a part of an
editor's managerial prerogative requiring leadership
decisions be made regarding proper allocation of editorial
resources or meeting reader needs with editorial content.

     This same question was posed by Lee Jolliffe when she
asked if editors of a magazine are concerned primarily with
espousing their personalities (grammar, layout, design,
content, etc.) on a magazine or are they concerned with
controlling the process dedicated to producing a
magazine.[30] She cited a variety of other research to
support both viewpoints and then presented her findings
after observing six magazine editors for a one-day period.
Her results suggest editors function less as personalities
or copy editors and more as successful and effective
managers. The paper also has an extensive list of
management functions and behaviors with observations of
which ones the editors performed and how they were
performed.

     Editorial functions have also been examined by Endres
and Schierhorn.[31] One study by these researchers looked at
the process of how editors work with writers on professional
magazines. The results are particularly interesting because
they tend to report on the managerial process used to
accomplish the creative aspects of publishing a magazine.
The editing methods used in working with writers varied,
usually depending on the writer the editors worked with. A
second study by this pair examined the impact computer
technology has had on producing a magazine. The study
presented several interesting aspects of editorial
management from equipment used to technological competency
to how technological advances have affected editor-writer
relationships. The results clearly pointed out that
technology is changing the way magazines are created and
produced. This also impacts on writer-editor relationships,
especially for free-lancers who may be unable to afford the
latest technology and therefore not able to properly
interact or connect with a magazine's technology.

     Another area of specific topic interest involves gender
and/or compensation. Considerable research in this area has
been done by Sammye Johnson.[32] She has presented data
showing that salary surveys are inconsistent, incomplete,
and inconclusive. Like most of the research cited in this
paper the value of Johnson's article resides not so much in
the results but in the detailed data presented to yield the
results, supported by 70 endnotes.

     The study by Hall previously cited [See Note 26] on the
old _Saturday Evening Post_ examined the relationship of
circulation and advertising dollars as each contributed to
the overall financial health of a magazine. This pioneer
study concluded that magazine publishing is a very complex
interaction of circulation and advertising dynamics. Hall's
findings have encouraged other researchers to use his model
to further explore circulation-advertising
interrelationships.

     Krishman and Soley in 1987 published a paper on their
research to determine if Hall's findings on circulation and
advertising rates were applicable to a cross-section of
current magazines. Their conclusions were yes; many of
Hall's results were still valid. Additional research in
these areas have been conducted by David Sumner, who
continued to examine the relationships between ad revenues
and circulation revenues.[33]

                      Discussion

     A review of research conducted in areas of magazine
management reveals the following:

     a. Very little on the topic is published in academic
journals.

     b. An examination of the references cited in the
research shows that many sources used are newspapers,
business, and trade periodicals rather than academic
journals.

     c. Much of the research conducted in magazine
management is not published but presented at academic
conferences.

     d. Most of the research that is conducted on magazine
management falls in the area of overall management or
industry trends rather than on specific industry topics.

     e. Considerable research resulting in case histories of
publications, editors, or publishers is published but more
often than not in publications other than academic journals.

     f. This lack of published research in areas of magazine
management becomes evident when so many endnotes and
reference citations are not from academic journals. This in
turn perpetuates the paucity of academic research because
the literature reviews cite so many sources other than
academic journals.

     g. Another problem this generates is magazine
researchers lack a conceptual and theoretical base to build
on.

              Suggestions For The Future

     The first question to attempt to answer is: why the
lack of published magazine research, especially in areas of
magazine management?  Is this subspecialty too narrow, too
limited to have an audience interested in the subject?
Research is a process utilized to answer questions. Perhaps
we are asking the wrong questions. On the other hand there
may be no interest in the answers. Then again it may be that
magazine researchers are competing for limited publication
space against other journalism researchers whose findings
are in demand by a larger audience than magazine
academicians have. After all, how many journalism programs
do not offer degree tracks in newspaper journalism?  Then,
how many journalism programs offer sequences in magazine
journalism?  It should be obvious that a small academic
field naturally yields a limited share of academic research.

     The next question is, can anything be done to increase
interest in and publication of magazine management research?
Yes. Media management is a professional area within
journalism and mass communication which is gaining in
interest and stature. Perhaps magazine management
researchers should consider this area of journalism
education as a potential outlet for presenting and
publishing magazine management research. It might be that
magazine management research is more suited to the area of
media management than to the general topic of magazines.
Recently more papers on magazine management are being
presented; the apparent problem is a lack of suitable
vehicles for publication. Hopefully as more studies are
conducted, increased interest in the topic will lead to
better opportunities for publication. One other area to
consider for publication might be business journals; after
all, magazine publication is a business.


                       Endnotes

     [1] Editors of Folio Magazine, Magazine Publishing
Management, Magazine Publishing Is Not a
Management-Intensive Business, by James B. Kobak (New
Canaan, CT: Folio Publishing Corporation, 1976), 45.

     [2] see John M. Lavine and Daniel Wackman, Managing
Media Organizations: Effective Leadership of the Media
(White Plains, NY: Longman, 1988); Stephen Lacy, Ardyth B.
Sohn, Jan Le Blanc Wicks, George Sylvie, Angela Powers, and
Nora J. Rifon, Media Management A Casebook Approach
(Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Ealbaum Associates, Incorporated,
1993); and Jim Willis and Diane B. Willis, New Directions in
Media Management (Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1993).

     [3] See Folio: The Magazine for Magazine Management;
MagazineWeek: The Newsweekly of Magazine Publishing (defunct
as of mid-1993); and Advertising Age.

     [4] See Leonard Mogel, The Magazine, Second Edition
(Chester, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 1988); Robert G. Picard,
Media Economics: Concepts and Issues (Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Publications, Incorporated, 1989); Stephen Lacy, Ardyth B.
Sohn, and Robert H. Giles, editors, Readings in Media
Management (Columbia, SC: Media Management and Economics
Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and
Mass Communication, 1992).

     [5] Willis and Willis, New Directions in Media
Management, 72.

     [6] See E. R. Worthington, "Crucial Issues Facing
Battered Magazine Publishers in the 1990's," Paper presented
at the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass
Communication Magazine Division mid-year meeting, Oxford,
MS, 9 November 1991; Magazine Buying and Planning, a special
section in Advertising Age, 11 October 1993; Marc Boisclair,
"Finally, A Little Sunshine," Magazine Week, 2 November
1992, 24, 26-27; David Sumner, "Who Pays the
Piper--Consumers or Advertisers?", Paper presented at the
Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass
Communication annual meeting, Kansas City, MO, August 1993;
and Scott Donaton, "Magazines Counting on Future Growth in
Trouble," Advertising Age, 11 October 1993, S-4, S-22.

     [7] Scott Donaton, "Shepard Offers Hits to Cope in '90s
Era of Cost-Cutting," Advertising Age, 11 October 1993,
S-10, S-18.

     [8] Junu Bryan Kim, "Plan For a Year, But Execute Month
to Month," Advertising Age, 11 October 1993, S-14.

     [9] Julie Steenhuysen, "Custom Publishing is Catching
On," Advertising Age, 11 October 1993, S-24, S-25.

     [10] See Melvin L. Defleur and Everette E. Dennis,
Chapter 4, Magazines:  Voices for Many Interests,
Understanding Mass Communication, Fourth Edition (Boston,
MA:  Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), 110-137; Ray Eldon
Hiebert, Donald F. Ungurait, and Thomas W. Bohn, Chapter
12--Magazines and Periodicals, Mass Media VI (White Plains,
NY:  Longman, 1991), 304-326; and Raymond Sokolov, "Musical
Chairs in the Magazine Industry," The Wall Street Journal, 5
August 1992, A16.

     [11] Leonard Mogel, The Magazine, Chapter Two:  The
Function and Responsibilities of the Publisher and the
Business Staff, 13-21.

     [12] Leonard Mogel, The Magazine, Chapter Three:  The
Role of the Editor, 23-45.

     [13] Caroline Dow, "Togetherness in Magazine Research,"
Magazine Forum 1 (1990):  26-27.

     [14] Peter Gerlach, "Research About Magazines Appearing
in Journalism Quarterly," Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987):
182.

     [15] Marcia R. Prior-Miller, "A Consensus and Analysis
of Journals Publishing Research About Magazines, 1977-1987,"
Paper presented at the AEJMC annual meeting, Minneapolis,
MN, 9 August 1990.

     [16] For 1990 see the July issue of AEJMC News, pages
15-16 and 18-19; for 1991 see the July issue of AEJMC News,
pages 14-15 and 18-19; for 1992 see the AEJMC News, pages
17-18 and 21-22; and for 1993 see the July issue of AEJMC
News, pages 16-18 and 20-21.

     [17] Benjamin M. Compaine, "The Magazine Industry:
Developing the Special Interest Audience," Journal of
Communication 30 (Spring 1980):  98-103.

     [18] Kathleen Endres, "Ownership and Employment in
Specialized Business Press," Journalism Quarterly 65 (Winter
1988):  996-998.

     [19] Charles Mayo and Yorgo Pasadeos, "Changes in the
International Focus of U.S.  Business Magazines, 1964-1988,"
Journalism Quarterly 68 (Autumn 1991):  509-514.

     [20] Worthington, "Crucial Management Issues Facing
Battered Magazine Publishers in the 1990's."

     [21] Marcia R. Prior-Miller, "An Analysis of `Magazine
Type':  Toward an Empirically Based Typalogy of Magazines
and Non-Newspaper Periodicals," Paper presented at the AEJMC
annual meeting, Montreal, Canada, 5 August 1992.

     [22] Kathleen L. Endres, "Re-Examining the American
Magazine Industry:  A Look at Changing Realities in
Periodical Publishing," Paper presented at the AEJMC annual
meeting, Kansas City, MO, 11 August 1993.

     [23] Vincent P. Norris, "Consumer Magazine Prices and
the Mythical Advertising Subsidy," Journalism Quarterly 59
(Summer 1982): 205-211, 239.

     [24] Patricia A. Strout, Gary B. Wilcox, and Lorrie
Greer, "Trends in Magazine Advertorial Use," Journalism
Quarterly 66 (Winter 1989): 960-964.

     [25] David Abrahamson, "A Quantitative Analysis of U.S.
Consumer Magazines: Baseline Study and Gender Determinants,"
Paper presented at the AEJMC Magazine Division mid-year
meeting, Oxford, MS, 8 November 1991.

     [26] Roger I. Hall, "A Systematic Fall of the Old
Saturday Evening Post," Administrative Science Quarterly 21
(June 1976): 185-211 and A Systems Model of a Magazine
Publishing Firm (Seattle: Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Washington: 1973). For other examples see
Carol Reuss, "Better Homes and Gardens: Consistent Concern
Key to Long Life," Journalism Quarterly 51 (Summer 1974):
292-296; Patricia Prijatel and Marcia Prior-Miller, "An
Analysis of the Failure of Flair Magazine," paper presented
at the AEJMC annual meeting, Boston, MA, 7 August 1991;
or Veronique Vienne, "Make It Right...Then Toss It Away,"
Columbia Journalism Review (July/August 1991): 28-29, 32-34.

     [27] As examples see Paula Renfro and Yorgo Pasadeos,
"TV Guide Under Murdoch: Less Serious Analysis, More
Entertainment," Southwestern Mass Communication Journal 7
(2, 1992): 119-131; or Eric Utne, "Tina's New Yorker,"
Columbia Journalism Review (March/April 1993): 31-37.

     [28] An example is Patrick M. Reilly, "Three Small
Magazine Firms Make It Big," The Wall Street Journal,
19 October 1992, B1, B4.

     [29] Examples of this trend are seen in the two 1993
media management texts by Willis and Willis (New Directions
in Media Management) and Media Management, A Casebook
Approach by Lacy et al. The Willis book has an appendix
containing 21 short cases, and the Lacy book contains 48
short cases and three extended cases.

     [30] Lee Jolliffe, "Magazine Editors: Personalities,
Copy Editors--or Managers?" Paper presented at the AEJMC
annual meeting, Kansas City, MO, 11 August 1993.

     [31] See Ann B. Schierhorn and Kathleen L. Endres,
"Magazine Editors and the Writing Process: An Analysis of
How Editors Work with Staff and Free-Lance Writers," Paper
presented at the AEJMC annual meeting, Kansas City, MO,
11 August 1993; and Endres and Schierhorn, "New Technology
and the Writer/Editor Relationship: Shifting Electronic
Realities," Paper also presented at the 1993 AEJMC annual
meeting.

     [32] See Sammye Johnson, Women's Employment and Status
in the Magazine Industry, Chapter 10 in P. J. Creedon,
editor, Women in Mass Communication: Challenging Gender
Values, Sage Focus Editions, No. 106 (Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Publications, 1989), 193-213; and Sammye Johnson, "Magazine
Industry Salary Status Surveys: Limitations and Difficulties
as a Mass Communications Research Area," Southwestern Mass
Communication Journal 6 (2, 1990-91): 1-14.

     [33] See R. Krishnan and Lawrence Soley, "Controlling
Magazine Circulation." Advertising Research 27
(August/September 1987): 17-23; and David Sumner's two paper
presentations, "Winners and Losers: Making it in the
Magazine Marketplace, 1969-90," AEJMC annual meeting,
Montreal, Canada, 5 August 1992 and "Who Pays the Magazine
Piper--Consumers or Advertisers?" AEJMC annual meeting,
Kansas City, MO, 11 August 1993.
------------------------------------------------------------
Author Information: Robert Worthington
                    Department of Journalism
                    New Mexico State University
                    Las Cruces, NM 88003
------------------------------------------------------------
                      Copyright 1994
   Communication Institute for Online Scholarship, Inc.

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