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Selective Bibliography on Ethnic Minorities, Racism and the Mass Media
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The Electronic Journal of Communication / La Revue Electronique de Communication
***** VANDIJK2 ********* EJC/REC Vol. 5, No. 2&3, 1995 *****


Teun A. van Dijk
University of Amsterdam

Version 4.0 (April 1995)

This selective bibliography primarily focuses on the portrayal of
ethnic minorities in the mass media, and especially in the written
press. Some references are included about the representation of
minorities in television, radio, film, and advertising. Also, only
some works are mentioned about minority media and minority
journalists. For a more detailed bibliography of Blacks in/and the
media, see the bibliography by Snorgrass & Woody (1985).

Missing references may be sent to:

Teun A. van Dijk
University of Amsterdam
Program of Discourse Studies
210 Spuistraat
1012 VT Amsterdam, the Netherlands


Adams, S. L. (1985). Blackening the media: The state of Blacks in the
press. In J. D. Williams (Ed.), The State of Black America. New York:
National Urban League.

Aguirre, A., & Bustamante, D. A. (1993). Critical Notes Regarding the
Dislocation of Chicanos by the Spanish-Language Television Industry
in the United- States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16(1), 121-132.

All Faiths for One Race. (1980). Read all about it. A study of race
relations reporting in newspapers. London.

Allen, R. L. (1993). Conceptual models of an African-American belief
system: A program of research. In Gordon L. Berry, & Joy Keiko Asamen
(Eds.), Children & television: Images in a changing sociocultural
world. (pp. 155-176). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Allen, R. L., & Bielby, W. T. (1977). Blacks' relationship with the
print media. Journalism Quarterly 54, 488-545.

American Indians and the Media. Neglect and stereotype. (1979)
Special issue of Journalism History, 6, 34-53.

American Society of Newspaper Editors (1972). Committee on minority
employment. Committee on education in journalism. ASNE on minorities.
Columbia Journalism Review 11, 51-51.

American Society of Newspaper Editors (1982). Minorities and
newspapers: A report by the Committee on minorities.

Ames, J. D. (1938). Editorial treatment of lynchings. Public Opinion
Quarterly 2, 77-84.

Anwar, M. (1978). Who tunes in to what? London: Commission for Racial

Anwar, M. (1983). Ethnic minority broadcasting. London: Commission
for Racial Equality. London.

Anwar, M., & Shang, A. (1982). Television in a multi-racial society.
London: Commission for Racial Equality.

Armstrong, G. B., Neuendorf, K. A., & Brentar, J. E. (1992). TV
Entertainment, News, and Racial Perceptions of College-Students.
Journal of Communication, 42(3), 153-176.

Astor, G. (1974). Minorities and the media. New York: Office of
Reports, Ford Foundation.

Atkan, M. (1981). Gastarbeiter und Massenmedien: Ghettosituation im
massenkommunikativen Bereich (Guestworkers and mass media: Ghetto
situation in the field of mass communication). Migration 1, 73-93.

Atkin, C., Greenberg, B., & McDermott, S. (1983). Television and race
role socialization. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 407-414.

Atkin, D. (1992). An Analysis of Television Series with Minority-Lead
Characters. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 9(4), 337-349.

Austin, E. W., & Nelson, C. L. (1993). Influences of Ethnicity,
Family Communication, and Media on Adolescents Socialization to
United-States Politics. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media,
37(4), 419-435.

Bagdikian, B. H. (1968). Editorial responsibility in times of urban
disorder. In C. V. Daly (Ed.), The media and the cities, (pp. 13-24).
Chicago, IL: Chicago University Center of Policy Study.

Bagley, C. (1973). Race relations and the press. Race 15, 1, 61-89.

Balon, R. E., et al., (1978) How sex and race affect perceptions of
newscasters. Journalism Quarterly 55, 160-163.

Baptiste, D. A. (1986). The image of the Black family portrayed by
television: A critical comment. Marriage and Family Review, 10(1),

Baran, S. J. (1978). Dying black/Dying white: Coverage in six
newspapers. Journal of Broadcasting 22, 299-308.

Barbrook, R. (1992). Broadcasting and National Identity in Ireland.
Media Culture & Society, 14(2), 203-227.

Bassett, J. (1967). Watts and the need for press involvement. In P.
L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp.
37-43). New York: Praeger.

Beatty-Brown, F. R. (1951). The Negro as portrayed by the St. Louis
Post Dispatch from 1920 to 1950. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Ph. D. Dissertation.

Becker, L. B., Kosicki, G. M., & Jones, F. (1992). Racial-Differences
in Evaluations of the Mass-Media. Journalism Quarterly, 69(1),

Bender, M. (1968). The Black community --Whitewashed in the news? Can
coverage be improved? American Press 86, 30-31.

Bennett, L. (1968). The white media. In C. V. Daly (Ed.), The media
and the cities, (pp. 7-12). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Berry, G. L. (1980). Television and Afro-Americans: Past legacy and
present portrayals. In S. B. Withey & R. P. Abeles (Eds.), Television
and social behavior. (pp. 231-247). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Berry, G. L. (1988). Multicultural role portrayals on television as a
social psychological issue. In Stuart Oskamp (Ed.), Television as a
social issue. Applied social psychology annual, Vol. 8. (pp.
118-129). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Bertelson, A. B. (1967). Keeper of a monster. In P. L. Fisher, & R.
L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp. 61-62). New York:

Black images in the mass media (1974). Freedomways 14, 181-187.

Blanchard, E. D. (1968). The poor people and the 'White press'.
Columbia Journalism Review 7, (3), 61-65.

Block, C. (1972). White backlash to Negro ads: Fact or fantasy?
Journalism Quarterly, 49, 253-262.

Bogart, L. (1972). Negro and white media exposure: New evidence.
Journalism Quarterly 49, (2), 15-21.

Bond, J. C. (1975). Media images of Black women. Freedomways 15, (1),

Bonnafous, S. (1989). Racisme et non-racisme: etude de presse.
(Racism and non-racism: A press study). Mots 12, 43-63.

Bonnafous, S. (1991). L'immigration prise aux mots. (Immigration
taken by its word). Paris: Editions Kime.

Bonnafous, S., & Fiala, P. (1984). L'argumentation dans les
editoriaux de droite et d'extreme droite (1973)-(1982).
(Argumentation in right-wing and ultra-right wing editorials). Paris:
Institut de langue francaise (CNRS) and Ecole Normale Superieure de
Saint Cloud.

Boone, B. (1967). Southern newsman and local pressure. In P. L.
Fisher, & P. E. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp.
47-53). New York: Praeger.

Boskin, J. (1980). Denials: The media view of dark skins and the
city. In B. Rubin (Ed.), Small voices and great trumpets: Minorities
and the media, (pp. 141-147). New York: Praeger.

Bovenkerk, F. (1978). Rasdiscriminatie bij misdaadverslaggeving in de
pers. (Racial discrimination in crime reporting in the press). In F.
Bovenkerk (Ed.), Omdat zij anders zijn. Patronen van rasdiscriminatie
in Nederland (Because they are different. Patterns of racial
discrimination in the Netherlands). Meppel: Boom.

Braham, P. (1982). How the media report race. In M. Gurevitch, et al.
(Eds.), Culture, society and the media, (pp. 268-286). London:

Brechner, J. L. (1967). Were broadcasters color blind? In P. L.
Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, (pp.
98-104). New York: Praeger.

Brown, C. (1974). The ghetto view of crime. Race Relations Reporter,

Brune, Y. (1985). Journalisten som verklighetens dramaturg (The
journalist as reality's playwrite). In Invandrare i tystnadsspiralen
(Immigrants in the spiral of silence). Stockholm: Report av
diskrimineringsutredningen (Report of the Committee on

Buchholz, M. (1990). Racial References in the Texas Press, 1813-1836.
Journalism Quarterly, 67(3), 586-591.

Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B., Burgoon, M., Coker, D. A., & Coker, R.
(1987). Minorities and Journalism: Career Orientations Among
High-School Students. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 434-443.

Burgoon, M., Burgoon, J. K., & Shatzer, M. J. (1987). Ethnic
differences in the evaluation of newspaper image. International
Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11(1), 49-64.

Butterworth, E. (1966). The 1962 smallpox outbreak and the British
press. Race 3(4).

Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (CARF) (1984). Race reporting:
The Newham Recorder and the Newham 8. Searchlight, March (1984).

Campaign Against Racism in the Media (CARM). (1977). In black and
white: Racist reporting and how to fight it. London.

Carter, H. (1967). The wave beneath the froth. In P. L. Fisher, & R.
L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media, 54-58. New York:

Carter, R. E. (1950). Racial identification effects upon the news
story writer. Journalism Quarterly 36, 3, 284-290.

Caspari, G. (1982). Media performance at the inflection point.
Coverage of racial conflict in Milwaukee in (1967). 

Chaffee, S. H., Nass, C. I., & Yang, S. M. (1990). The Bridging Role
of Television in Immigrant Political-Socialization. Human
Communication Research, 17(2), 266-288.

Chaudhary, A. G. (1979). Press portrayals of Black officials,
Journalism Quarterly 57, 636-641.

Clark, C. (1969). Television and social controls: Some observation of
the portrayal of ethnic minorities. Television Quarterly, 8, 18-22.

Cohen, P., & Gardner, C. (Ed.). (1982). It ain't half racist mum:
Fighting racism in the media. London: Comedia.

Cohen, S., & Young, J. (Eds.). (1981). The manufacture of news.
Deviance, social problems and the mass media. 2nd. edition. London:
Constable & Beverly Hills: Sage.

Colle, R. D. (1968). Negro image in the mass media: A case study in
social change, Journalism Quarterly 45, 1, 55-60.

Commission for Racial Equality. (1982). Television in a multi-racial
society. London.

Community Relations Commission. (1975). Race and the media. London.

Cottle, S. (1991). Reporting the Rushdie Affair: A Case-Study in the
Orchestration of Public-Opinion. Race & Class, 32(4), 45-64.

Cottle, S. (1992). "Race", racialization and the media: A review and
update of research. Sage Race Relations Abstracts, 17 (2), 3-57.

Covin, D. (1991). Black consciousness in the White media: The case of
Brazil. Western Journal of Black Studies, 15(2), 95-102.

Critcher, C., Parker, M., & Sondhi, R. (1977). Race in the provincial
press: A case study of five West Midlands papers. In UNESCO,
Ethnicity in the media. (pp. 25-192). Paris: Unesco.

Dalancy, V. (1943). Newspapers and the Negro. The Quill,
November-December, 3-5.

Dalsimer, S. (1967). The justice of persuasion. In P. L. Fisher, & R.
L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media. (pp. 113-120). New
York: Praeger.

Daniel, J. L., & Allen, A. (1988). Newsmagazines, public policy, and
the Black agenda. In G. Smitherman-Donaldson, & T. A. van Dijk
(Eds.), Discourse and Discrimination, 23-45. Detroit, MI: Wayne State
University Press.

Darkow, M., Eckhardt, J., Maletzke, G. (1985). Massenmedien und
Auslander in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Mass media and
foreigners in the Federal Republic of Germany). Frankfurt am Main.

Dates, J. L., & Barlow, W. (Eds.). (1990). Split image: African
Americans in the mass media. Howard University Press.

Dates, J. L., & Gandy, O. H. (1985). How Ideological Constraints
Affected Coverage of the Jesse Jackson Campaign. Journalism
Quarterly, 62, 595.

Davis, R. A. (1987). Television commercials and the management of
spoiled identity. Western Journal of Black Studies, 11(2), 59-63.

De Mott, J. (1981). White racism in the newspaper. The Masthead
33(4), 6-11.

De Mott, J., & Roberts, R. (1979). White racism, Blacks, and mass
communication: An instruction source bibliography. Paper presented at
the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism,
Houston, TX, August 3-8.

Delgado, M. (1972). Die Gastarbeiter in der Presse (Guestworkers in
the press). Opladen: Leske Verlag.

Demeter, J. (1986). Winter in America. Notes on media and race.
Radical America 20, no. 5. 63-71.

Dines, G., & Humez, J. M. (1994). Gender, race and class in the
media. London: Sage.

Dodd, D. K., Anderson, H. T., & Foerch, B. J. (1988).
Content-Analysis of Women and Racial Minorities As News Magazine
Cover Persons. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 3(3),

Dodson, D. (1969). Coverage of racial problems in Milwaukee;s daily
newspapers, Berkeley, CA: AEJ Convention paper.

Dorr, A. (1982). Television and the socialization of the minority
child. In G. L. Berry & C. Mitchell-Kernan (Eds.), Television and the
socialization of the minority child. New York: Academic Press.

Downing, J. D. H. (1975). The balanced (white) view. In C. Husband
(Ed.), White media and black Britain. London: Arrow.

Downing, J. D. H. (1980). The Media Machine. London: Pluto.

Downing, J. D. H. (1985). 'Coillons. . . Shryned in an Hogges Toord':
British news media discourse on 'Race'. In: T. A. Van Dijk (Ed.),
Discourse and communication. (pp. 295-323). Berlin: de Gruyter.

Droge, F. W. (1967). Publizistik und Vorurteil. (Media studies and
prejudice). Munster.

DuCharme, M. (1986). The coverage of Canadian immigration policy in
the Globe and Mail, (1980)-(1985). Currents 3(3), 6-11. (2)

Eastman, H., & Liss, M. (1980). Ethnicity and children's preferences.
Journalism Quarterly, 57, 277-280.

Ebel, M., & Fiala, P. (1983). Sous le consensus, la xenophobie (Under
the consensus, the xenophobia). Lausanne: Institut de sciences

Elebash, C., & Rosene, J. (1982). Issues in political advertising in
a deep South gubernatorial race. Journalism Quarterly, 59, 420-423.

Entman, R. M. (1990). Modern Racism and the Images of Blacks in Local
Television-News. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7(4),

Entman, R. M. (1992). Blacks in the News: Television, Modern Racism
and Cultural-Change. Journalism Quarterly, 69(2), 341-361.

Erickson, C. A. (1981). Hispanic Americans and the press. Journal of
Intergroup Relations 9, no. 1, 3-16.

Ettema, J. S. (1990). Press Rites and Race-Relations: A Study of
Mass- Mediated Ritual. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7(4),

Evans, H. (1971). A positive policy. In Race and the Press. London:
Runnymede Trust.

Evans, P. (1976). Publish and be damned? London: Runnymede Trust.

Faber, R. J., Meyer, T. P., & Oguinn, T. C. (1986). Diversity in the
Ethnic Media Audience: A Study of Spanish Language Broadcast
Preference in the Us. International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 10(3), 347-359.

Fair, J. E., & Astroff, R. J. (1991). Constructing Race and Violence:
United-States News Coverage and the Signifying Practices of
Apartheid. Journal of Communication, 41(4), 58-74.

Fanning, L. S. (1967). The media: Observer or participant? In P. L.
Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media (pp.
107-112). New York: Praeger.

Feagin, J. R. (1992). On not taking gendered racism seriously: The
failure of the mass media and the social sciences. Special Issue:
Behavioral science and public affairs. Journal of Applied Behavioral
Science, 28(3), 400-406.

Fedler, F. (1973). The media and minority groups: A study of adequacy
of access. Journalism Quarterly 50, 1, 109-117.

Field, M. (1944). Color line in the news. Negro Digest, August, 71-74.

Fife, M. (1987). Promoting Racial Diversity in United-States
Broadcasting: Federal-Policies Versus Social Realities. Media Culture
& Society, 9, 481-504.

Fisher, P. L., & Lowenstein, R. L. (Eds.). (1967). Race and the news
media. New York: Praeger.

Fitzgerald, T. K. (1991). Media and Changing Metaphors of Ethnicity
and Identity. Media Culture & Society, 13(2), 193-214.

Focus on racism in the media. (1992). Extra 5(5), July/August.
Special issue.

Gandy, O. H., & Coleman, L. G. (1986). The Jackson campaign: Mass
media and Black student perceptions. Journalism Quarterly, 63,

Gandy, O. H., & Coleman, L. G. (1986). Watch Jesse Run and Tell Me
What You See: A 1st Look at Student Perceptions of the Jackson,Jesse
Presidential Candidacy. Journal of Black Studies, 16, 293-306.

Gandy, O. H., Matabane, P. W., & Omachonu, J. O. (1987). Media use,
reliance, and active participation: Exploring student awareness of
the South African conflict. Communication Research, 14(6), 644-663.

Gearing, B. (1985). The convergence of race and crime news. Sage race
relations Abstracts 10(3).

Gerbner, G., & Signiorelli, N. (1979). Women and minorities in
television drama (1969-1978). Philadelphia: Annenberg School of
Communication, University of Pennsylvania.

Gilbert, B. (1968). Race coverage. ASNE Bulletin 515, 1-2, 13.

Good, P. (1977). Is network news slighting minorities? TV Guide,
March 5, 4-8.

Gordon, P. (1987). Visas and the British press. Race & Class, XXVIII,
no 3, winter.

Gordon, P. & Rosenberg, D. (1989). Daily racism. The press and black
people in Britain. London: The Runnymede Trust.

Graham, H. D. (1967). Crisis in print: Desegregation and the press in
Tennessee. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Gray, H. (1987). Race-Relations As News: Content-Analysis. American
Behavioral Scientist, 30(4), 381-396.

Gray, H. (1993). The Endless Slide of Difference: Critical Television
Studies, Television and the Question of Race. Critical Studies in
Mass Communication, 10(2), 190-197.

Greenberg, B. S. (1986). Minorities and the mass media. In J. Bryant
& D. Zillman (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects. (pp. 165-188).
Hillsdale, Nl: Erlbaum.

Greenberg, B. S., & Atkin, C. (1982). Learning about minorities from
television: A research agenda. In G. Berry & C. Mitchell-Kerllan
(Eds.), Television and the socialization of the minority child. (pp.
211-243). New York: Academic Press.

Greenberg, B. S., Burgoon, M., Burgoon, J. K., & Korzenny, F. (1983).
Mexican Americans and the news media. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Greenberg, B. S., & Mazingo, S. L. (1976). Racial issues in mass
media institutions. In: P. A. Katz (Ed.), Towards the elimination of
racism. (pp. 309-340). New York: Pergamon Press.

Greenfield, P., & Beagles-Roos, J. (1988). Radio vs. television: The
cognitive impact on children of different socioeconomic and ethnic
groups. Journal of Communication, 38, 31-92.

Gruber, H. (1990). Antisemitische Vorurteile in Zeitungsberichten.
Eine textlinguistische Untersuchung zweier osterreichischer
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textlinguistic investigation of two Austrian newspapers).
Klagenfurter Beitrage zur Sprachwissenschaft, 15-16, 145-162.

Gruber, H. (1990). Vorurteile in Zeitungen. (Prejudice in
Newspapers). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

Gruber, H. (1991). Antisemitismus im Mediendiskurs. Die Affare
"Waldheim" in der Tagespresse. (Antisemitism in Media Discourse. The
Waldheim-affair in the daily press). Wiesbaden: Deutscher
Universitats Verlag.

Guillaumin, C. (1974). Changes in inter-ethnic 'attitudes' and the
influence of the mass media as shown by research in French-speaking
countries. In Unesco, Race as news. (pp. 55-87). Paris: UNESCO.

Gutierrez, F. (1978). Making news: Media coverage of Chicanos.
Agenda, 8(6), 21-22.

Gutierrez, F. (1978). Through Anglo Eyes: Chicanos as portrayed in te
news media. Paper for the Annual Meeting of the Association for
Eduation in Journalis. Seattle.

Hall, S. (1981). The whites of their eyes: Racist ideologies and the
media. In G. Bridges (Ed.), Silver linings. Some strategies for the
eighties. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., & Roberts, B.
(1978). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the State and law and order.
London: Methuen.

Halloran, (1974). Mass media and race: A research approach. In
Unesco, Race as news, Paris: UNESCO Press.

Hansen, A. (1982). Press coverage of the summer 1981 riots.
Unpublished MA Dissertation. University of Leicester: Centre for Mass
Communication Research.

Harland, P. (1971). Reporting race: Some problems. In Race and the
Press. London: Runnymede Trust.

Harris, J. T. (1978). Minority employment in daily newspapers.
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL: Medill School of Journalism.

Hartmann, P., & Husband, C. (1973). The Mass Media and Racial
Conflict. In S. Cohen, & J. Young (Eds.), The Manufacture of News:
Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media. (pp. 270-283). London:

Hartmann, P., & Husband, C. (1974). Racism and the mass media.
London: Davis-Poynter.

Hartmann, P., & Husband, C. (1981). The mass media and racial
conflict. In S. Cohen, & J. Young (Eds.), The manufacture of news.
(pp. 288-302). Second edition. London: Constable.

Hartmann, P., Husband, C., & Clark, J. (1974). Race as news: A study
in the handling of race in the British national press from 1963-1970.
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Haws, D. (1991). Minorities in the Newsroom and Community: A
Comparison. Journalism Quarterly, 68(4), 764-771.

Hayden, M. (1967). Reporting the racial story in Detroit. In P. L.
Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media. (pp.
25-36). New York: Praeger.

Hedman, L. (1985). Invandrare i tystnadsspiralen (Immigrants in the
spiral of silence). In Invandrare i tystnadsspiralen. (pp. 21-196).
Stockholm: Report av diskrimineringsutredningen (Report of the
Discrimination Committee).

Hinds, D. (1985). The press and the Black presence in Britain
1950-1965. Paper presented to the Conference on the History of Black
People in London. University of London, Institute of Education.

Hines, R. (1974). Selected press coverage of Wounded Knee. Kent
University. Unpublished thesis.

Holland, P. (1981). The new cross fire and the popular press.
Multiracial Education 9, 60-80.

Hollingsworth, M. (1986). The press and political dissent. London:

Holman, B. F. (1967). The smoldering fires. In P. L. Fisher, & R. L.
Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the news media. (pp. 23-25). New York:

Hujanen, T. (Ed.). (1984). The role of information in the realization
of the human rights of migrant workers. Report of International
Conference. Tampere (Finland). University of Tampere: Dept. of
Journalism and Mass Communication.

Hunt, G. P. (1967). The racial crisis and the news media: An
overview. In P. L. Fisher, & R. L. Lowenstein (Eds.), Race and the
news media. (pp. 11-20). New York: Praeger.

Husband, C. (1975). Racism in society and the mass media: A critical
interaction. In C. Husband (Ed.), White media and Black Britain.
London: Arrow Books.

Husband, C. (1977). News media, language and race relations: A case
study in identity maintenance. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity
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Husband, C. (Ed. ). (1975). White media and Black Britain. A critical
look at the role of the media in race relations today. London: Arrow

Husband, C. (Ed.). (1994). A richer vision. The development of ethnic
minority media in Western democracies. Paris: Unesco; London: Libbey.

In Black and White (1968). A report of the 1968 general news
committee of the APME. March, 23 pp.

In Black and White and Shades of Grey: Kerner Plus Three (1971). A
report of the Minority News Committee. APME, 34 pp.

Indra, D. M. (1979). Ethnicity, social stratification and opinion
formation: An analysis of ethnic portrayal in the Vancouver press,
1905-1976. Ph. D. Dissertation. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby,
British Columbia.

Indra, D. M. (1979). South Asian stereotypes in the Vancouver Press:
1905-1976. Ethnic and Racial Studies 2(2), 164-187.

Indra, D. M. (1981). Women, ethnicity and the media. Canadian Ethnic
Studies 13(1), 63-74. (2)

Indra, D. M. (1982) The production and legitimation of racial and
ethnic stereottypes in the Vancouver newspaper press, 1905-1982. In
V. d'Oyley (Ed.), Perspectives on race, education and social
development: Emphasis on Canada. (pp. 35-43). Vancouver: University.

Institute of Race Relations. (1976). UK Commentary: Race and the
press. Race & Class XVIII, No. 1.

Jager, S. (1988). Rechtsdruck. Die Presse der neuen Rechten.
("Rechtsdruck": The press and the new right). Bonn: Dietz.

Jager, S., & Link, J. (1993). Die vierte Gewalt. Rassismus und die
Medien (The Fourth Force: Racism and the Media). Duisburg: DISS.

Jhally, S., & Lewis, J. (1992). Enlightened racism. The Cosby show,
audiences, and the myth of the American dream. Boulder, CO: Westview

Johnson, E. (1987). Believability of newscasters to Black television
viewers. Western Journal of Black Studies, 11(2), 64-68.

Johnson, K. A. (1987). Media images of Boston's Black community.
Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts: William Monroe Trotter
Institute. Research Report.

Johnson, K. A. (1991). Objective News and Other Myths: The Poisoning
of Young Black Minds. Journal of Negro Education, 60(3), 328-341.

Johnson, P. B., Sears, D. O., McConahay. (1971). 'Black
invisibility', the press and the Los Angeles riot. American Journal
of Sociology 76, 698-721.

Johnson, T. J. (1993). Filling Out the Racing Form: How the Media
Covered the Horse Race in the 1988 Primaries. Journalism Quarterly,
70(2), 300-310.

Jones, C. (1971). Immigrants and the news. In Race and the Press.
London: Runnymede Trust.

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