EJC - In Search of My "One-and-Only": Romance-Oriented Media and Beliefs in Romantic Relationship Destiny
Volume 17 Numbers 3 & 4, 2007
IN SEARCH OF MY "ONE-AND-ONLY":
ROMANCE-RELATED MEDIA AND BELIEFS IN ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP DESTINY *
Bjarne M. Holmes
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK
Abstract: Media seem saturated with
messages about romantic relationships. Yet very scarce work has been
done looking at connections between romance-oriented media and people's
beliefs about relationships. Using 294 undergraduate students, an
exploratory study found an association between preference for/like of
romance-oriented media and two relationship-as-destiny-oriented
beliefs: belief in predestined soul mates (β = .27, p < .001) and that “mind reading is expected in relationships” (β = .21, p
< .001). These findings held even while taking into account the
influence of participant gender and relationship experiences. The
utility of both cultivation and social-cognitive theory for explaining
the initial findings and for future work are discussed. More extensive
research is called for.
“I've just spent the entire flight, staring into the sky thinking…
not about my fiancé, but about this mystery guy I met a million and a
half hours ago… a guy I don't even remember except for this vague
picture I have inside my head… it was just a few seconds … a fragment,
really…and it was like, in that moment, the whole universe existed just
to bring us together. That's why I'm here; that's why I'm going to let fate take me where it wants to go! …” (Osher et al., 2001, Serendipity, 00:46:13 - 00:46:52).
Television, motion pictures, novels, and magazines seem saturated
with messages, such as the one above, that either directly or
indirectly suggest that a “one and only” predestined soul mate awaits
discovery. Yet, we know very little about whether such messages, in
addition to personal experiences and observations of the romantic
relationships of others, are related to people's beliefs about
relationships. The notion that one can find a romantic partner who fits
perfectly with preconceived standards is an unrealistic view that fails
to take into account the work required to develop and maintain a
healthy and loving relationship (Baucom et al., 1996; Eidelson & Epstein, 1982). Yet, Bachen and Illouz (1996)
found that 90% of young people look to movies and 94% to television for
information about love, while only 33% turn to their mother and 17% to
their father. Given this popularity of media for information about
love, we need to explore if ideas about romance and relationships as
portrayed in media are related to ideas held by individuals. This
research note presents exploratory work on the topic.
Beliefs in Relationship Destiny
To believe that destiny plays a role in romance and relationships
implies that potential romantic partners might be meant for each other
based on predestined factors (Franiuk, Cohen, & Pomerantz, 2002; Knee et al., 2001).
Embedded in this belief is the idea that there is a predestined soul
mate “out there” and that relationship happiness will be instantly
achieved and maintained if that special person can be located. Also
implied by this belief is the idea that long-term relationship success
might not be attainable with anyone else except for that one “true” soul mate (Franiuk, Cohen, & Pomerantz, 2002).
A belief in relationship destiny has been associated with people more
quickly ending a relationship when problems arise, having shorter
relationships when initial satisfaction is low, and longer
relationships when initial satisfaction is high (Knee, 1998). In contrast, Knee et al. (2001)
have shown that people who believe that successful relationships are
cultivated and evolve over time exhibit more relationship satisfaction
and less interest in diagnosing the relationship as entirely good or
Extensive research on dysfunctional relationship beliefs (Baucom et al., 1996; Eidelson & Epstein, 1982; Epstein & Eidelson, 1981)
has demonstrated a number of powerful misconceived attitudes about
romantic relationships with particular relevance to beliefs in
relationship destiny: the expectation that if partners are “truly”
meant for each other 1) they should have a complete understanding of
each other's needs and desires with little or no effort (so called
“mind-reading”) and 2) sex in a relationship should be “perfect” and
without effort. Both of these beliefs have been linked to decreased
relationship satisfaction (Baucom & Epstein, 1990; Baucom et al., 1996; Bradbury & Fincham, 1987; Kurdek, 1992), increased relationship distress (Eidelson & Epstein, 1982; Epstein & Eidelson, 1981), and destructive problem-solving responses in relationships (Metts & Cupach, 1990). In general, women and men endorse these types of relationship beliefs to the same degree (see e.g., Fitzpatrick & Sollie, 1999).
Relationship Destiny in Popular Media
Little work has been done on the romance-related content of popular
media, and more extensive content analyses are called for. However,
Tanner, Haddock, Zimmerman, and Lund (2003),
in analyzing the content of themes of families and couples in 26 Disney
animated movies, found that a major theme was the notion of “love at
first sight.” The majority of the movies analyzed (18 of the 26)
portrayed couples that fell in love within a matter of minutes, got
married, and “lived happily ever after.” In a content analysis of
popular movies targeted toward young adults, Signorielli (1997)
found about a third of the female characters were motivated by a strong
desire for romance with “the right one.” In addition, Pardun (2002),
in a content analysis of the 15 movies viewed by the largest number of
teens in 1995, found that a major theme regarding relationships in
these movies was the notion that love “just happens;” “then ‘somehow,’
you just end up married, and that's when the mundane begins” (p. 224).
In a content analysis of every article in every Seventeen magazine issue between 1974 and 1994, Carpenter (1998)
found that discussions of romance pervaded throughout the period,
including consistent themes about “love at first sight” and meeting the
“the one and only.” Wray and Steele (2002) replicated this work by demonstrating that every Seventeen
magazine of sixteen straight issues gave romance and finding the “ideal
guy” prime placement on the cover and in the pages of the magazine.
Previous Work with Media and Relationship Beliefs
Only a handful of studies have previously looked for any potential
relationship between romantic relationship variables and media
variables. Haferkamp (1999) found a
positive association between people's amount of television viewing and
the belief that the “sexes are different.” In addition, the study
showed a positive association between watching soap operas and the
belief that “mind reading is expected” in a relationship. Segrin and
Nabi (2002) found a significant
positive association between consumption of romance-oriented television
and idealized expectations of marriage. Shapiro and Kroeger (1991)
found a weak but significant relationship between unrealistic
relationship beliefs and romantic novel and comedy movie consumption.
None of these studies directly addressed the potential relationship
between media and beliefs related to romantic destiny.
The Current Work: Research Questions and Theoretical Linkage
RQ1: Is there a relationship between individuals' preferences
for/liking of romance oriented media and their beliefs about
There are a number of different theories for why preference
for/liking of romance media might be associated with beliefs in
relationship destiny. According to cultivation theory, for instance,
the relationship between media messages and individuals' beliefs and
attitudes about their social environment will be moderated by their
overall television consumption such that the more television viewers
watch, the more they will cultivate information from television into their perceptions of reality (Gerber, 1969; Gerber & Gross, 1976; Gerber, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1994).
So while cultivation theory could serve as one potential framework, the
emphasis of the current work is more on individuals' preferences
for/like of romance-oriented media than consumption per se. While
preference for/like of media certainly can give an indication of
exposure, it cannot be assumed.
Unlike the traditional use of cultivation theory, this work is more in line with those studying differential cultivation effects (e.g., Hawkins & Pingree, 1982; Hirsch, 1980; Rössler & Brosius, 2001; Signorielli, 1991; Weaver & Wakshlag, 1986), who argue that specific media messages may produce content-specific effects. Perse, Ferguson, and McLeod (1994)
argue that cultivation of specific attitudes appears to be related to
consumption of specific genres, rather than undifferentiated media
consumption. For instance, exposure to real-world depictions of
violence on television have been shown to have a greater influence in
inflating people's assessment of risk for victimization, compared to
just exposure to high amounts of television in general (Potter, 1993).
However, the current work defines romance-oriented media more broadly
than simply television concerning relationships. Theory about
differential cultivation effects still does not address the potential
effects of non-television media. Just as television has become more
specialized and fragmented, other media sources have become ever more
important sources of information and entertainment (e.g.,
genre-specific film, genre-specific magazines, the Internet) and
deserve attention, alongside television.
The application of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986; 2002)
also leads us to the idea that individuals may learn about norms and
ideals regarding romance from the media. The theory demonstrates how
individuals observe media characters and the consequences for their
actions, learn what those consequences suggest for what is valued or
deemed appropriate in society (and what is not), and consider that
information in the formation of their own attitudes and the enactment
of their behavior. Bandura (2002) describes
the vicarious capability of individuals that allows them to engage in
“observational learning” — witnessing and considering the experiences and
responses of others — rather than learning only through the effects of
their own actions. Importantly, the “others” who serve as behavioral
models for individuals consist of both individuals in one's own
environment and individuals who appear in the media (Bandura & Huston, 1961; Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1963).
Because direct contact with others in one's own environment is likely
to be constrained to largely the same set of people each day, the media
outweigh those other sources in shaping social reality because they
broaden what individuals can observe (Bandura, 2002). Bandura (2002)
notes, for instance, that individuals may find verification of beliefs
and behavior in media portrayals, which often contain distortions of
the social world, thereby leading the individual to inaccurate
conclusions. While the theory is useful as a general framework for
helping explain a relationship between preferences for/like of romance
media and attitudes about relationships, we were limited by the
exploratory nature of this research in testing how/why those mechanisms
might function. Such testing of the mechanisms is beyond the scope of
RQ2: Does a relationship between romance media preference and
beliefs about relationship destiny stand even when taking into account
gender and relationship experience variables?
Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2002)
postulates that individuals observe models of behavior and may take
from them a central, generative lesson about romance. Yet, that lesson
is not singular, but rather is likely to be different for different
audience members, shaped by their preference for the media form in
question, their conceptions of the attractiveness of the depictions of
romance, and their own values and prior notions on the topic.
Therefore, while we are not testing the function of the processes of
the theory per se, we are considering the potential contribution that
non-media related variables such as gender and relationship experiences
may play on both preference for media and relationship beliefs.
Two hundred ninety-four undergraduate students from a large public
university in the Northeast USA participated in exchange for extra
credit in their psychology class (84 men and 209 women; average age
19.8, SD 1.7). Five percent of participants classified
themselves as Asian-American, 2% as Hispanic/Latino, 87% as Caucasian,
2% as African-American, and 4% as “other.” Ninety-six percent of the
participants identified themselves as heterosexual, 1% as
gay/lesbian/homosexual, and 3% as bisexual. Seventy-two percent of the
participants reported being in an exclusive romantic relationship (52%)
or dating (20%) at the time of the study.
Romance media preference. A measure was created to assess
participants' preference for/liking of romance-oriented media content.
The researchers used the Internet to create lists of television
programming, major motion pictures, and popular magazines considered to
have relationship/romance-oriented themes. All programming on major
networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX) and cable (MTV, HBO) was explored for
appropriate content. Motion pictures included in the official genre romantic comedy
were chosen from several Internet ratings of the most popular romantic
comedies over time. Magazines were chosen from descriptions of content
taken from various listings of the most popular magazines. A panel of
six undergraduate students (three males and three females) first
independently, then collectively, made suggestions on additional
content to add and on content to remove from the lists. The final lists
are presented in the Appendix. Participants
were instructed to first circle all content they were familiar with,
then to mark how much they like or dislike each program, film, or
magazine (using a 7-point scale 1 = Strongly Dislike, 7 = Strongly Like). A global preference for romance media
score was created by aggregating all individual item scores for
television programming, motion pictures, and magazines (i.e., global
mean score on a 1-to-7 scale).
Belief in predestined soul mates. Using a separate but
representative college sample,a measure was created to assess
participants' belief in predestined soul mates. Subjects rated the
following seven items on a 7-point-scale (1 = Strongly disagree, 7 = Strongly agree):
“I will feel an instant sense of oneness and indivisibility with my
romantic soul mate”, “Fate has the power to bring two people together”,
“Meeting the right person only happens once in a lifetime”, “I will
know my romantic soul mate when I meet him/her”, “I believe in love at
first sight”, “I believe there is one and only one special romantic
soul mate ‘out there’”, “I believe two people can be meant for each
other.” Cronbach's Alpha for the sample used for scale development was
.80 and was .76 for the current study.
Dysfunctional beliefs related to relationship destiny. The “Mind reading is expected” and “Sexual Perfectionism” subscales of Eidelson and Epstein's (1982)
Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI) were used to assess dysfunctional
beliefs related to a general belief in relationship destiny. The RBI
subscales consist of eight items each accompanied by a 7-point scale (1
= Strongly disagree, 7 = Strongly agree). Sample
items include “People who have a close relationship can sense each
other's needs as if they could read each other's minds” and “I get
upset if I think I have not completely satisfied my partner sexually.”
Internal reliability for the RBI scales has been shown to range from
.72 to .81 (see Eidelson & Epstein, 1982, for more details). Cronbach's Alpha for the subscales used in the current study was .73 and .75, respectively.
The measures were administered separately to groups of 35 to 50 at a
time. Rigorous means were used to ensure that each participant felt
entirely comfortable during the study (e.g., adequate space between
seats, sealed envelopes for the measures, total anonymity). Informed
consent was obtained.
RQ1: Preference for/like of romance media and beliefs about destiny in relationship
We asked if preference for romance media would be related to
people's beliefs about destiny in relationships. Indeed, as shown in
the zero-order correlation matrix in Table 1, there were significant
positive relationships between preference for/like of romance media and
individuals' beliefs in predestined soul-mates (r = .28, p < .001) and belief that mind-reading is expected in relationships (r = .24, p < .001). There was however no relationship between preference for romance media and belief in sexual perfectionism.
RQ2: Romance media preference and beliefs about relationship
destiny while taking into account gender and relationship experience
As shown in Table 1, univariate analysis indicated a significant relationship between gender and preference for romance media (r = .34, p
< .001) with females more likely to prefer romance media. Female
gender was also positively associated with both the belief that mind
reading is expected in a relationship (r = .14, p < .05). The results also showed a negative correlation between gender and belief in sexual perfectionism (r = -.21, p
< .001) indicating that males were more likely to believe in sexual
perfectionism. There were however no significant relationships between
relationship experiences and preference for romance media.
We asked if the relationship between romance media and beliefs would
stand even when taking into account the contribution of gender and
relationship experience variables. Given the associations with gender
found in the univariate analysis, the potential interaction between
gender and romance media was tested in the multivariate analysis.
Perhaps the results would indicate that the relationship between
preference for media and beliefs would vary in accordance with the
gender of the participant, even while taking into account their
relationship experiences. Continuous predictor variables were centered
and a romance media preference X gender interaction term was created in
accordance with Aiken and West (1991). Hierarchical multiple regressions were employed and values for all regressions are shown in Table 2.
Belief in predestined soul mates, mind reading is expected in a relationship, and sexual perfectionism
were independently regressed on current relationship status and number
of recent relationships (Step 1), gender and romance media preference
(Step 2), and the interaction of gender X romance media preference
(Step 3). Step 1 accounted for no variance. For belief in predestined soul mates, preference for romance media (Step 2) accounted for 8% of the explained variance, β = .27, t = 4.46, p < .001 (medium sized effect; according to Cohen & Cohen, 1983,
the standards for effect sizes are: small = 1%, medium = 9%, large =
24%) while participant gender showed no significant contribution.
Romance media preference X gender (Step 3) did not account for any
significant amount of variation above that explained at Step 2.
Likewise, for the belief that mind reading is expected in a relationship,
Step 1 accounted for no variance. Preference for romance media (Step 2)
accounted for 6% of the explained variance (small to medium effect
size), β = .21, t = 4.43, p < .001, while
participant gender had no contribution. As with the previous analysis,
romance media preference X gender (Step 3) did not account for any
significant amount of the variance beyond that explained at Step 2.
Likewise, for the belief in sexual perfectionism, Step 1
accounted for no variance. Consistent with the univariate analysis,
preference for romance media (Step 2) did not account for explained
variance, while participant gender (women coded 1, men coded -1)
accounted for 4% (small effect size), β = -.23, t = -3.59, p
< .001. Romance media preference X gender (Step 3) did not account
for any significant amount of the variance beyond that explained at
A large majority of young people report that they turn to the media to learn about romantic relationships (Bachen & Illouz, 1996).
Yet, the general topic of romance and the media remains severely under
explored. Although many would anecdotally agree that romantic themes
prevail in much popular media content, thorough systematic content
analyses on the topic are much needed. Similarly, a surprisingly scant
amount of previous research has been conducted on how and what
individuals can learn about romance through media consumption (Haferkamp, 1999; Segrin & Nabi, 2002; Shapiro & Kroeger, 1991)
and no known previous research has focused specifically on the
potential relationship between preference for/like of romance media and
beliefs regarding romantic destiny. The current work extends the scant
literature on romance and media by providing exploratory evidence on
this particular topic. Given the social significance that learning from
the media may have for the formation of relationship-related attitudes,
we call for extensive research into this area.
Knee et al. (2001) showed that belief in relationship destiny
has negative consequences for relationship functioning. People with
these types of beliefs tend to want to give up too easily in a
relationship when confronted with problems, interpreting strife as a
sign that the relationship “just wasn't meant to be.” Yet, little is
known about the origin of these types of beliefs. A number of
researchers have argued that popular media might be a potential source
of dysfunctional beliefs about relationships (Bachen & Illouz, 1996; Signorielli, 1989).
Indeed, research about relationships shows that when notions are in
place about some easily achieved state of romantic bliss, satisfaction
with one's own relationship may decrease (Baucom & Epstein, 1990; Baucom et al., 1996; Bradbury & Fincham, 1987; Kurdek, 1992), ability to solve relationship-related problems may suffer (Metts & Cupach, 1990), and distress may surface (Eidelson & Epstein, 1982; Epstein & Eidelson, 1981).
The current study found an association between belief in predestined
soul mates and preference for romance media, even while taking into
account other non media-related variables such as the gender of the
participant, current relationship status, and number of recent
relationships. In addition, the current findings extend previous
related work (Haferkamp, 1999; Shapiro & Kroeger, 1991; Segrin & Nabi, 2002) by further finding an association between media habits and dysfunctional relationship beliefs (Eidelson & Epstein, 1982)
related to beliefs in relationship destiny. The belief that “mind
reading is expected in a relationship” was associated with preference
for romance media. In particular, this belief implies that if two
people are “meant for one another” then they should understand and
predict each other's wishes and desires with little effort or
communication (Epstein & Eidelson, 1981).
However, belief in sexual perfectionism was not associated with
preference for romance media, but was, rather, positively associated
with male gender. One interpretation of this finding is that romance
media may focus more strongly on the ideally romantic nature of
relationships as opposed to sexuality and that males are more
socialized towards expectations of sexual perfection. It may also be
that there are differences in sexual experiences that we could not
account for in this exploratory work because we asked about
relationship experiences and not sexual experiences within those
relationships. Future work should clarify both romantic experiences as
well as sexual experiences in relation to beliefs about sexual
Given the exploratory nature of the research, caution needs to be
taken in drawing conclusions from the findings. Instead the findings
should be used as a starting point from which to do more extensive
research on this topic. Though both cultivation theory (Gerber & Gross, 1976) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2002)
can inform this work, neither one is explicitly tested in the current
study. Future research needs to be designed to test the specific
processes that may lie behind the relationships found in this data. In
order to properly test for media effects using a cultivation paradigm,
future work will need to capture overall television exposure to see if
it is related to beliefs about romantic relationship destiny. However,
past research has shown that cultivation of specific attitudes may be
related to consumption of specific genres, rather than undifferentiated
television consumption (Perse, Ferguson, and McLeod, 1994). Hence, in line with the differential cultivation effects approach (Hawkins & Pingree, 1982; Hirsch, 1980; Rössler & Brosius, 2001),
we recommend that future research test specifically the effects of
consumption of romance television programming in comparison to overall
However, cultivation theory, as traditionally used, does not lend
itself easily to incorporating non-television media into the research,
nor to asking how variables such as preference for, or liking of, media
may influence exposure. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2002),
on the other hand, may also help inform the results found and function
as a basis for future work. Indeed, the theory provides a potentially
sound explanation for how media function as sources of cultural
information about relationships and shape the formation of attitudes
about romance as well as subsequent behavior. To test the theory more
precisely, we suggest that future work focus on assessing individual
differences that may influence how and why an individual prefers
romance media, how those differences may influence how much the
individual exposes themselves to that type of media, if and how
preconceptions may influence how the individual attends to, retains,
and interprets the messages in the media, and if and how individual
traits in people influence how they incorporate media messages into
their own romantic lives (Bandura, 2002).
The study focused on college students because people in this
particular age group tend to be avid popular media consumers, and there
is no reason to assume that these preliminary findings would generalize
to an older sample. People might become increasingly wiser to
unrealistic messages portrayed in popular media as they have more
actual relationship experiences themselves, although interestingly we
did not find relationship experience related to these dysfunctional
beliefs. In addition, given the correlational design of the study, no
answer can be provided as to whether consuming media directly affects
people's relationship beliefs, whether people with predisposed beliefs
seek out media that confirm these beliefs, whether the relationship is
bi-directional, or whether other unaccounted for variables are
responsible for the associations found. Future research on the
influences of media messages on people's relationship beliefs should
also incorporate experimental methods that help tease apart causality.
The potential for bidirectional influence — the pre-existence of beliefs
about relationships leads to exposure to romance media and exposure to
romance media reinforces beliefs about relationships — should also be
explored using a combination of correlational and experimental designs.
While we are excited about the future of such work, we are reserved in
terms of what can be concluded based on these initial exploratory
findings. We do, however, hope that preliminary work will inspire
others to carry this line of research forward.
* The author would like
to thank Erica Sharrer for her contributions to earlier drafts of this
paper and would like to thank Katie Quinn for assistance in data
collection. Author correspondence to Dr Bjarne M. Holmes, Psychology,
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Table 1. Zero-order correlations between variables in Study 1 (N = 294).
|1. Current relationship status
|2. Number of recent relationships
|3. Female gender
|4. Preference for romance media
|5. Belief in predestined soul mates
|6. Mind reading expected in relationships
|7. Belief in sexual perfectionism
- * p < .05
- ** p < .01
- *** p < .001
|Table 2. Study 1 belief in predestined soul mates, mind reading is expected in relationships, and sexual perfectionism
regressed on participants' preference for romance media, while taking
into account current relationship status, number of recent
relationships, and gender (N = 289).
|Relationship Destiny Beliefs
|Belief in predestined soul mates
| Current relationship status
| Number of recent relationships
| Female gender
| Romance media preference
| Gender X romance media
|Model 3 R2 = .09, F = 5.43, p < .001
|Mind reading is expected in relationships
| Current relationship status
| Number of recent relationships
| Female gender
| Romance media preference
| Gender X romance media
|Model 3 R2 = .06, F = 3.81, p < .002
| Current relationship status
| Number of recent relationships
| Female gender
| Romance media preference
| Gender X romance media
|Model 3 R2 = .04, F = 2.63, p < .05
- Romantic relationships are predestined: R2 = .00 at Step 1; ΔR2 = .08 for Step 2 (p < .001); ΔR2 = .01 for Step 3 (p = ns).
- Mind reading is expected in a relationship: R2 = .00 at Step 1; ΔR2 = .06 for Step 2 (p < .001); ΔR2 = .00 for Step 3.
- Sexual perfectionism: R2 = .00 at Step 1; ΔR2 = .04 for Step 2 (p < .002); ΔR2 = .00 for Step 3.
Appendix: Measures Used To Assess Preference For Romance Media
Please CIRCLE ALL TV PROGRAMS THAT YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH and then MARK HOW MUCH YOU LIKE OR DISLIKE EACH PROGRAM YOU CIRCLED using the following scale.
NOTE: ONLY MARK THE CHOICES THAT YOU CIRCLED.
| 1. Ally McBeal
|| 16. Temptation Island
|| 31. In-Laws
| 2. Sex In the City
|| 17. As the World Turns
|| 32. One Life to Live
| 3. Friends
|| 18. The Bold and the Beautiful
|| 33. Passions
| 4. All My Children
|| 19. Days of Our Lives
|| 34. Port Charles
| 5. Beverly Hills 90210
|| 20. General Hospital
|| 35. The Young and the Restless
| 6. Everybody Loves Raymond
|| 21. The Bachelor
|| 36. Scrubs
| 7. Ed
|| 22. Love Cruise
|| 37. Big Brother
| 8. Frasier
|| 23. Hidden Hills
|| 38. Survivor
| 9. Married with Children
|| 24. Just Shoot Me
|| 39. The Amazing Race
| 10. Mad About You
|| 25. Meet My Folks
|| 40. Guiding Light
| 11. Melrose Place
|| 26. Providence
|| 41. Yes, Dear
| 12. Will & Grace
|| 27. Spy TV
|| 42. The King of Queens
| 13. MTV: Sorority Life
|| 28. My Wife and Kids
|| 43. Bram and Alice
| 14. MTV: The Real World
|| 29. Life with Bonnie
|| 44. Judging Amy
| 15. Big Brother
|| 30. 8 Simple Rules
|| 45. Mind of a Married Man
||Please CIRCLE ALL MOVIES THAT YOU HAVE SEEN and then MARK HOW MUCH YOU LIKED OR DISLIKED EACH MOVIE YOU CIRCLED using the following scale.
NOTE: ONLY MARK THE CHOICES THAT YOU CIRCLED.
| 1. When Harry Met Sally
|| 15. Even After-A Cinderella Story
|| 29. About Adam
| 2. It Happened One Night
|| 16. Notting Hill
|| 30. The Bachelor
| 3. Four Weddings and a Funeral
|| 17. My Best Friend’s Wedding
|| 31. Clueless
| 4. Shakespeare in Love
|| 18. While You Were Sleeping
|| 32. Committed
| 5. Sleepless in Seattle
|| 19. Titanic
|| 33. Happy Together
| 6. Strictly Ballroom
|| 20. Never Been Kissed
|| 34. An Ideal Husband
| 7. High Fidelity
|| 21. Emma
|| 35. Legally Blonde
| 8. Romancing The Stone
|| 22. Kate & Leopold
|| 36. Loser
| 9. Bridget Jones’ Diary
|| 23. French Kiss
|| 37. Love is All There Is
| 10. Better Off Dead
|| 24. Return to Me
|| 38. Love Letter
| 11. Chocolat
|| 25. The Wedding Planner
|| 39. Dirty Dancing
| 12. What Women Want
|| 26. The Wedding Singer
|| 40. Serendipity
| 13. Pretty Woman
|| 27. Only You
| 14. You’ve Got Mail
|| 28. American Sweethearts
||Please CIRCLE ALL MAGAZINES THAT YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH and then MARK HOW MUCH YOU LIKE OR DISLIKE EACH MAGAZINE TYPE YOU CIRCLED using the following scale.
NOTE: ONLY MARK THE CHOICES THAT YOU CIRCLED.
| 1. People
|| 13. YM
| 2. Life
|| 14. Bride’s
| 3. Cosmopolitan
|| 15. Vogue
| 4. Cosmo Girl
|| 16. Honey
| 5. Marie Claire
|| 17. Vanity Fair
| 6. Glamour
|| 18. Elle Girl
| 7. Modern Bride
|| 19. Us
| 8. Self
|| 20. Elle
| 9. Shape
|| 21. Bridal Guide
| 10. Soap Opera Digest
|| 22. Allure
| 11. More
|| 23. In Style
| 12. Twist
|| 24. Jane
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