Volume 18 Number 1, 2008
Modeling Managers' Intentions to Adopt Telecommuting in a Developing Country: A Case from Egypt
Ahmed Gad Abdel-Wahab
Communication technologies have evolved over time as means of overcoming two principal communication barriers: time and distance. In oral cultures, people had to be in the same location at the same time to communicate. With the advent of literacy, documents could be created and saved for future reading or transported from one location to another. Electronic media greatly increase our capacity to overcome barriers of time and distance. In recent years, the use of such electronic media as the telephone, fax machine, electronic mail and electronic conferencing, have made it possible for many workers to practice what has become known as telecommuting. Telecommuting and other consequences of digital convergence will have a significant impact on the work place of the near future.Telecommuting is an alternative work arrangement whereby employees regularly spend at least part of their work hours working away from the traditional office location (Bell, 2002; Duxbury & Higgins, 2002).
Telecommuting is a new concept in Egypt. Egypt is an African country with a population of 74 million people with 10 million telephone lines and a teledensity of 10% (Ledwaba, 2002). Teledensity refers to the number of landline telephones in use for every 100 individuals living within an area. A teledensity greater than 100% means there are more telephones than people. Less developed countries may have a teledensity of less than 10%.
Egypt has established a strong base for its future through a project that has seen five million Internet users (Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, 2008). A global e-government survey conducted by Brown University in the US rates Egypt as being at the higher end of e-government readiness (49th out of 196 countries), with an implementation strategy comparable to many developed countries (Ledwaba, 2002).The creation of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in 1999 reiterated the Egyptian government’s firm commitment to encouraging technological development (International Telecommunication Union, 2005).
Dakahlia is considered to be one of the ancient Governorates in Egypt. With a population of 4,839,359, it is the third largest Governorate in Egypt. Agricultural areas in Dakahlia cover approximatel 10% of the cultivated area of Egypt. There is also a large industrial base in Dakahlia including fertilizer, hydrogenation of oils, soup, chemicals, spinning and weaving, garments, wood, rice milling, crushers, cotton mills, milk, etc. (Mansoura International Trade Point, 2005). Most of the industrial facilities are located in Mansoura City, the capital of Dakahlia Goveand Googlernorate with a population of 1,600,000. An actual visit to Mansoura's streets frequently tells a story of traffic havoc and rush hour gridlock that more often than not has no set hours. Traffic planners could consider telecommuting as they try to devise new ways to improve the situation. On the other hand, the majority of the workforce employed in Mansoura live in suburbs, villages, or towns outside the city. That makes the daily commute, for many workers, the most disagreeable part of their day. Thus, telecommuting is seen as a means of increasing the jobs-housing balance in urban and suburban areas by enhancing the ability to move work to, or closer to, the workers' residences rather than requiring workers to commute to work daily. Predictions abound that telecommuting will be rapidly adopted and become mainstream (Daniels, Lamond & Standen, 2001). To date, however, the adoption rates of telework have not lived up to expectations (Bailey & Kurland, 2002). The slower than expected adoption of telework has been attributed to a lack of support or interest from managers (Bailey & Kurland, 2002; Duxbury & Higgins, 2002).
Hence, in order to promote telecommuting in Egypt, it seems important to investigate the factors that affect Egyptian managers' intentions to adopt such a new concept. In this paper the author will consider a modified version of the technology acceptance model (TAM), studies of telecommuting, and investigate factors that affect Egyptian managers' intention to adopt telecommuting.
Numerous studies have identified a variety of factors that affect innovation adoption in business organization. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) developed a general model that explains and predicts behavioral intentions in many general settings. The model is referred to as TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action). The theory hypothesizes that a person’s behavioral intention (BI) to perform (or not to perform) a behavior is determined by that person’s attitude (A) and subjective norms. Behavioral Intention is a measure of the strength of one’s intention to perform a specific behavior. Attitude (A) describes an individual’s positive or negative feelings about performing the target behavior. Subjective norms (ٍٍSN) refers to the person’s perception that most people who are important to him or her think he/she should or should not perform the behavior in question (e.g., Fishbein and Jazzed, 1975). Davis et al. (1989) found that behavioral intention to use a system is significantly correlated with usage, and that behavioral intention is a major determinant of user behavior. Hill et al. (1987) also indicated that behavioral intentions significantly predict action. Likewise, Sheppard et al. (1988), in a meta-analysis of 86 TRA studies, found an average correlation of 0.54 between intentions and actions.
Davis (1985) adapted Ajzen and Fishbein’s (TRA) Theory of Reasoned Action (1980) to model intentions to accept information technology. Davis’ model is referred to as the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model). It explains the causal links between beliefs (for example, beliefs about the usefulness and ease of use of an information system (IS) and users’ attitudes, intentions, and actual usage of the system. Perceived usefulness (U) and perceived ease of use (EOU) are independent variables in the model. The dependent variable is the behavioral intention (BI). One mediating variable of the TAM is the individual’s attitude toward use. Numerous studies discovered that the technology acceptance theory (TAM) yields consistently high explained variance in users’ choices to utilize information systems (Mathieson, 1991; Pavri, 1988). Hence, the technology adoption model put forward by Davis will be utilized in this study.
Two more independent variables are added to the original model, namely, the pressure to use and resources availability. The rationale behind the use of these two factors is that, in addition to usefulness and ease of use, decision makers have to be under some pressure to adopt a particular innovation, that is, they must perceivae a need to use a particular system. Further they must have the resources necessary to adopt such an innovation. Next, the relevance of usefulness, ease of use, pressure to use, attitude towards using and sufficient resources to the concept of telecommuting will be explored.
Usefulness of telecommuting
Davis et al. (1989) defined perceived usefulness as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance” (p. 320). The following is a summary of why telecommuting might be perceived as useful for both employers and employees:
For employers telecommuting allows for increased productivity (Kurland and Bailey, 1999), reduced absenteeism and sick leave, less turnover, reduced overhead, reduced parking space, and improved employee recruiting and retention (Mills et al., 2001). Telework has also become pivotal to the operations of global corporations whose employees are expected to cross virtual time zones and require increased flexibility in work arrangements to manage international connections and services (Meyers, Hearn & Bradley, 2006). In short, when work is structured around networks instead of buildings, productivity and job satisfaction simultaneously increase while the costs of real estate go down.
For employees, telecommuting provides for increased scheduling flexibility (Mokhtarian and Salomon, 1997; Mills et al., 2001), savings in the cost and time spent in commuting, less travel-related stress (Teo et al., 1998; Lupton and Haynes, 2000; Salomon, 1998), and the ability to better balance the competing demands of work and family. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2005) notes that flexible work options such as flextime and telework make workplaces more attractive to parents. Telecommuting also allows disabled individuals to take on jobs they might not normally be able to travel to and enables women with young children to perform their jobs without compromising valuable time spent with their children.
Ease of telecommuting practice
Telecommunications advances permit the convenient transmission of information anywhere in the world almost instantaneously. Hence, people whose work deals primarily with information may be able to work wherever they can "keep in touch".
However, successful telecommuting is also related to the ability of employees to perform well as telecommuting workers (Belanger and Collins, 1998; Nilles, 1997). Good candidates for telecommuting are those who are trustworthy, have a desire to telecommute, have Icomputer proficiency (hardware, software), and have a strong performance record. Writers, managers, salespersons, accountants, programmers, graphic artists, researchers, engineers, architects, public relations professionals -- all are prime candidates for telecommuting (Bélanger, 1999).
Success in telecommuting arrangements is also believed to be improved by using outcomes-based measures of employee performance, rather than management by observation (DiMartino and Wirth 1990). So, managers who focus on outcomes and goals should more easily adapt to the idea that employees will no longer be monitored on a day-to-day basis.
Pressures to Use Telecommuting
The following conditions act to increase the perceived need for telecommuting as a strategy for managing employees: First, traffic congestion and rush hour gridlock makes the daily commute, for many workers in the Egyptian Governorate of Dakahlia, the most disagreeable part of their day. Organizations in Dakahlia could follow the example of the large telecommunications company Pacific Bell, which has gradually become increasingly interested in the concept of telecommuting. The possibilities of telecommuting were first called to Pacific Bell's attention during the Los Angeles Olympics, when it was adopted as a temporary measure to avoid the horrendous automotive gridlock that was expected when games visitors were added to the city's already clogged freeways (Hequet, 1994). In 1996 one-fifth of Pacific Bell's 10,000 managerial-level employees telecommute at least one day a week, according to Linda Bonniksen, a company corporate communications manager.
Second, stress between job and family demands is an additional source of pressure. For working women in Egypt, child-care issues can greatly complicate daily schedules. The stress of balancing family and work obligations is prompting many workers to seek alternatives. Telecommuting permits a more effective balance of work demands with responsibilities at home (Kurland and Bailey, 1999).
A third factor is the convenience of the workplace. When the right person for the job lives too far away to commute daily, telecommuting makes it possible to hire him or her. In the case of Egypt, many skilled and highly educated Egyptian citizens are working outside Egypt, especially in the Gulf States, the USA, and Europe. Telecommuting makes it possible to hire them at least one day a week.
Fourth, housewives in Egypt are a significant portion of the labor force that would find telecommuting attractive. Since women constitute an important percent in the population, telecommuting may provide a flexible work arrangement in order to accommodate Egyptian housewives who are highly educated but unable to work outside their homes.
Finally, inclusion of disabled employees who are otherwise unable to travel to places of employment is possible through the incorporation of telecommuting options (Wood, 1994).
Resources required for implementing telecommuting
Communication may be the single most important factor in any telecommuting arrangement. Neufeld and Fang reported that the quality of telecommuters' social interactions with managers and family members was strongly associated with telecommuters' productivity (Neufeld and Fang, 2005). Since interactions with others often require the physical proximity of coworkers for substantial parts of the workday (Kraut, 1989), telecommuters have the disadvantage of the loss of face-face contact with coworkers, supervisors, and clients, as well as the problem of reduced access to information for task completion (Pool, 1990; Hamilton, 1987). Hence, communication support that is taken for granted in the traditional office environments and in which physical proximity promotes collaboration among employees, needs to be realigned to virtual work needs. In other words, telecommuters, separated by time and space, need communication links that bridge both (Kugelmass, 1995).
As telecommuting progresses to more advanced, more intensive stages and employees spend even more time outside the office, communication technologies become a substitute for face-to-face interactions. In fact, telecommuting would not be possible without modern communications technology (Mallia and Ferris, 2000). In an empirical study of the impacts of telecommuting on intra-organizational communication, Duxbury and Neufeld (1999) reported that with a few exceptions, part-time telecommuters involved in the study felt that they were able to adapt the communication systems currently in place to the telework situation with little or no problems. In fact, communication technology may allow workers to make more electronic contacts and to communicate with more individuals than would be possible otherwise (Pool, 1990). However, telecommuters‘ reliance on the use of communication technologies is affected by:
Based on the previous literature review, the following research questions were posed for empirical investigation and statistical analysis:
What is the most useful subset of predictors that can be used in modeling a manager's intention to adopt telecommuting? And what are the implications of developing such a model for the diffusion of telecommuting as an alternative work style in Egypt?
Data collection instruments: A telecommuting adoption questionnaire was developed by the author (see Appendix A). There are two sections in the questionnaire:
In section one, 24 items are provided, four of which refer to each of the following dimensions: Attitude towards telecommuting (items 6,12,18,24), intention to adopt telecommuting (items 5,11,17,23), resources (items 4,10,16,22), pressure to use (items 3,9,15,21), ease of use (items 2,8,14,20), and usefulness (items 1,7,13,19). Respondents were asked to rate their opinion about each item using 5-point Likert scales. In section two, items were created to collect demographic information.
A definition of telecommuting was presented in the introductory part of the instrument as follows: “Telecommuting is a form of work arrangement involving the use of computers and telecommunication technologies which allow employees to perform their jobs at home or a remote work site. Employees maintain contacts with their organizations through the use of telephones; fax machines computer modems as well as electronic and voice mail systems. They do not necessarily work at home every day but for one or more complete workdays a week in lieu of working in the office. Telecommuters who work at home every day may be required to attend arranged periodic meetings with their supervisors.”
Reliability analysis: Reliability estimates of the survey questions with respect to measuring attitudes and behavioral intentions were conducted (see Table 5 in Appendix C).
Survey sample: Out of 400 questionnaires a sample of 240 Egyptian managers in Dakahlia governorate completed the questionnaires with usable data. The sample subjects were randomly selected from organizations affiliated with higher education, local government, health services, communication sector, financial ministry units, and the banking sector. Questionnaires were handed to the respondents at their places of work with the assistance of a senior manager in each workplace. Completed questionnaires were collected through several visits to respondents at work. Since, none of the respondents was familiar with the concept of telecommuting, the concept was presented and defined to respondents in the introductory portion of the questionnaire.
The sample characteristics are shown in Table 4 in Appendix B. Of the 240 respondents, 157 were males and 82 were females. 79 of the respondents fell between 20- 34 years of age; 40 between the ages of 35 – 39; 30 between the ages of 40 - 44; 47 fell between 45 – 49; finally, 39 were older than 55. With respect to hierarchical level, 145 of the respondents characterized themselves as head of departments, 46 characterized themselves as one level below vice general manager, 13 were vice general managers, 29 were general managers, 4 were vice chairman, and one respondent was a chairman (former University Principal). With respect to years of experience, 46 of the respondents had less than 5 years of experience;49 had worked 6-10 years, 50 had worked 11-15 years, 34 had worked 16 -20 years, 43 had worked 21 - 30 years, and finally 15 had worked more than 30 years for their organizations.
Figure 1 displays a breakdown of the responses related to attitude to adopt telecommuting by the sample subjects. This figure shows that 68.8% of the respondents have positive attitude towards telecommuting.
Figure 2 displays a breakdown of scores related to respondents’ intention to adopt telecommuting on a full time basis. Figure 2 shows that only 30.8% of the respondents agree with the following survey item: I intend to allow some employees to telecommute on a full time basis.
Figure 3 displays a breakdown of respondents’ scores related to their intention to adopt telecommuting on a part time basis. Figure 3 shows that 62.1% of the respondents agree to the statement 17 of the research instrument ("I intend to allow my subordinates to telecommute on a part time basis").
Table 1 shows the correlations between behavior intention (BI) and other variables (i.e. attitudes, resources, pressure to use, ease of use, and usefulness). They are 0.677, 0.395, 0.520, 0.406, and 0.474 respectively.
Table 2 shows stepwise regression of behavior intention versus attitude, resources, pressure to use, ease of use, and usefulness.
The table shows that the most useful subset of variables that can be used in modeling intentions to accept telecommuting includes: attitude (A), usefulness (U), resources (R), and pressure to use (PTU). Accordingly, the best regression model that could be used in predicting behavioral intention is:
Intention = - 0.96 + 0.519 Attitude + 0.117 Usefulness + 0.174 Resource + 0.145 Pressure
S = 2.255 R-Sq = 56.0% R-Sq (adj) = 55.2%
Analysis of the dependent variable (BI): The above model is used to predict behavioral intention scores among the sample subjects. Figure 4 shows the statistical description of the predicted values of BI among the sample subjects:
Figure 4 shows that among the sample subjects, there are 55 managers whose BI scores fall in the range from 6.653 to 13.945 (the lower category of BI). Hence, according to the equation, they represent managers who have lower intentions to adopt telecommuting. Also, there are 109 managers whose BI scores fall in the range from 13.946 to 18.359 (the higher category of BI). Hence, according to the equation, they represent managers who have higher intentions to adopt telecommuting.
Table 3 shows a test of differences between the two groups' scores in the independent variables (Attitude, Ease of use, Usefulness, Resources, Pressure to use).
The results in Table 3 indicate that:
The above results are compatible with the TAM model, which receives further support through the data presented in this study.
This study advances knowledge about managers' intentions to adopt telecommuting as an alternative work style in the Egyptian governorate of Dakahlia. The research questions outlined earlier in this study will now be re-examined. The questions were concerned with determining the best subset of predictors that can be used in modeling a manager's intention to adopt telecommuting and the implications of developing such a model for the diffusion of telecommuting as an alternative work style in Egypt. Using stepwise regression analyses, the results suggest that the best subset of predictors that can be used in modeling a manager's intention to adopt telecommuting includes:
Thus, perceived ease of use did not enter the model. The author believes that there is some logic in such a result. That is to say, if employers are convinced that a new system is important for their firms, they would adopt such a system even though their employees may not be familiar with it. In such cases, benchmarking and training programs might be used to solve problems related to difficulties in use.
Hence, one can conclude that telecommuting could be adopted by managers in Egyptian Governorate of Dakahlia if:
The results reveal that 68.8% of the respondents have positive attitudes towards telecommuting, 71.3% believe in the usefulness of telecommuting, and 80% agree that their organizations are under pressure to use telecommuting. But, only 47.9% of the respondents agree that their organizations have the required resources to adopt telecommuting. More specifically, only 47.9 % of the respondents agree that their organizations have the computing equipment needed in the day to day performance of the telecommuters' duties, and only 43.4% of the respondents agree that their organizations have sufficient internal expertise available to train employees in the use of the Internet and E-mail. The results also revealed that although the pressures to adopt telecommuting are high, weak ICT infrastructure and shortages of IT experts are possible reasons for the current lack of telecommuting diffusion in Egyptian organizations.
As indicated earlier, the use of IT equipment and the frequency of IT use were taken as predictors for telecommuting adoption (Peters, Tijdens, and Wetzels, 2004). In a comparison between American and Egyptian employees attitudes towards telecommuting (Abdel-Wahab, 2006), the American employees' attitudes were dramatically higher than those of their Egyptian counterparts. It was concluded that the differences were due to the IT infrastructure gap between the two countries, computer proficiency gaps (hardware, software) between workers in the two countries, and limited living space (due to Egypt’s pressing housing problem) which makes it difficult for the telecommuters to set up boundaries for family members.
Hence, one can recommend that in order to achieve the competitive advantages of telecommuting, Egyptian organizations should spend more to improve the ICT infrastructure. Furthermore, organizations should first offer training workshops that put emphasis on the pluses of telecommuting for organizations, individuals, and societies, and second offer training programs for employees on technologies, hardware and software that are needed in the day-to-day performance of their duties.
Limitation of the current study
Mangers may form their attitudes towards telecommuting in two different ways: either through direct experience with the concept, or through inferential reasoning about the communicated attributes of the concept. Egyptian managers have so far not been offered telecommuting as an alternative work arrangement, and therefore, are expected to form their attitudes toward telecommuting through inferential reasoning about communicating attributes of telecommuting through different sources of information. One such source of information is the definition of telecommuting provided in the introductory portion of this research instrument, and different items that are included in the same instrument. Of course, these kinds of attitudes may not be as strongly held as one might hope and may be open to change upon further familiarity with telecommuting. However, the author believes that, for the sake of promoting telecommuting in an emerging market such as Egypt, measuring attitudes under such circumstances, may be better than not measuring at all.
Directions for future research
To the best of the author's knowledge, this study is among the few to study telecommuting in Africa. Hence, the study may persuade other researchers to investigate the application of telecommuting in Egypt and other African countries. Future research should focus on the entire nation in order to obtain a better representation of the population. A longitudinal study that uses the TAM (with the additional variables) could be used to obtain a better picture of the factors that affect managers' intentions to adopt telecommuting in Egypt and other African countries.
Abdel-Wahab, A.G. (2006). Employees' Attitudes toward telecommuting: An empirical investigation in the Egyptian Governorate of Dakhahlia. International Journal of Business Data Communication and Networking, 2(2), 21-37, April-June.
Azjen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bailey, D.E., & Kurland, N.B.(2002). A review of telework research: Findings, new directions and lessons for the study of modern work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 383-400.
Bélanger, F. (1999). Workers' propensity to telecommute: An empirical study. Information & Management, 35(3), 139-153.
Bélanger, F. & Collins, R. (1998). Distributed work arrangements: A research framework. The Information Society: An International Journal, 14(2), April-June, pp. 137-152
Bell, S. (2002). Surfing the third wave: Experiential reflections on new working practices. Systematic Practice and Action Research, 15(V), 67-82.
Davis, F.D., Bagozzi, R.P., & Warsaw, P.R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35, 982–1003.
Davis, F.D. (1985). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results. Doctoral Dissertation, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA.
Davis, F.D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13, 319–340.
DiMartino V. and Wirth L. (1990). Telework: a new way of working and living. Internatiional Labour Review 129, 529-4.
Duxbury, L. & Higgins, C. (2002). Telework: A Primer for the millennium introduction. In: C. Cooper and RJ. Burke (Eds.), The New World Of Work: Challenges and Opportunities (pp. 157-200). London: Sage.
Duxbury, L. & Neufeld, D. (1999). An empirical evaluation of the impacts of telecommuting on intra-organizational communication. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 16, 1-28.
Fishbein, M. & Azjen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intentions, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International.
Hamilton, C.A. (1987). Telecommuting. Personnel Journal, 66, 90-101.
Hequet, M. (1994). How telecommuting transforms work. Training, 3(11), 56-61.
Hill, T., Smith, N.D., & Mann, M.F. (1987). Role of efficacy expectations in predicting the decision to use advanced technologies: A case of computers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 307–318. International Telecommunication Union, 2005, Available at: http://www.itu.int/home/index.html
Kraut, R.E. (1989). The trade-offs of home work. Journal of Communication, 39(3), 19-47.
Kugelmass, J. (1995). Telecommuting: A manager's guide to flexible work arrangements. New York: Lexington Books.
Kurland, N. B., and Bailey, D. A. (1999, Autumn). Telework: The advantages and challenges of working here, there, anywhere, and anytime. Organizational Dynamics, 53-63.
Ledwaba, L. (2002). Egypt takes on the digital divide. (Johannesburg, 31 October, 2002). Available at http://www.itweb.co.za/sections/telecoms
Lupton, P., and Haynes, B. (2000). Teleworking – The perception-reality gap. Facilities, 18(7–8), 323–327.
Mallia, K.L. & Ferris, S.P. (2000). Telework: A Consideration of its impact on individuals and organizations. Electronic Journal of Communication, 10(3, 4)
Mansoura International Trade Point (2005). Available at: http://www.mansouratp.gov.eg/population.htm
Mathieson, K. (1991). Predicting user intention: Comparing the technology acceptance model with theory of planned behavior. Information Systems Research, 2, 173-191.
Mills, J.E., Ellison, C.W., Werner, W., and Clay, J.M. (2001). Employer liability for telecommuting employees. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. October–November: 48–59.
Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (2008). Plan Indicator for Communication and Information Technology, end of February 2008. Available at: http://www.mcit.gov.eg/IndicatorsPDF/Nashramarch3-2008.pdf.
Mokhtarian, P.L. & Salomon, I. (1997). Modeling the Desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models. Transportations Research A 31(1), 35–50.
Neufeld, D.J. & Fang, Y. (2005). Individual, social, and situational determinants of telecommuter productivity. Information and Management, 42, 1037-1049.
Nilles, J. M. (Fall 1997). Telework: Enabling Distributed Organizations. Information Systems Management, 14(4), pp. 7-14.
Nilles, J. (1998). Thoughts on the Future of Telecommuting, available at: http://www.davidflemingltd.com
OECD (2005). Babies and Bosses: Reconciling Work and Family Life. Volume 4: Paris, France.
Pavri, F. (1988). An empirical investigation of the factors contributing to micro-computer usage. Dissertation, University of Western Ontario.
Peters, P., Tijdens, K.G., & Wetzels, C. (2004). Employees' opportunities, preferences, and practices in telecommuting adoption. Information & Management, 41, 469-482
Pool, I. (1990). Technologies without boundaries: On telecommunications in a global age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Salomon, I. (1998). Technological change and social forecasting: the case of telecommuting as a travel substitute. Transportation Research, Part C 6 (1- 2), 17-45.
Sheppard, B.H., Hartwick, J., & Warsaw, P.R. (1988). The Theory of reasoned action: A meta-analysis of past research with recommendation for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 325-343.
Teo, T.S.H., Lim, V.K.G., & Wai, S.H. (1998). An Empirical Study of AttitudesTowards Teleporting among Information Technology (IT) Personnel. International Journal of Information Management, 18(5), 329– 343.
Wood, C. (Oct, 1994). Kiss the Office Goodbye. PC World, 143-155
Appendix B. Sample Characteristics
Appendix C. Reliability Analysis
Reliability estimates of the survey questions with respect to measuring attitudes and behavioral intentions were conducted. Hair et al. (1998) suggested that Cronbach Alpha values from .6 to .7 were deemed to be the lower limit of acceptability. An Alpha of more than .7 would indicate that the items are homogeneous and measuring the same constant. Table 5 shows the reliability analysis of the study.
Copyright 2008 Communication Institute for Online Scholarship, Inc.
This file may not be publicly distributed or reproduced without written permission of the Communication Institute for Online Scholarship,
P.O. Box 57, Rotterdam Jct., NY 12150 USA (phone: 518-887-2443).