Volume 19 Numbers 1 & 2, 2009
The Educators Coop:
An Initial Typology of Text and Voice Communication Practices in SL
|Text and Voice Communication in Second Life|
|Interaction in Second Life||Interaction occurs among||Instances|
|Public Chat Public Voice||Two or more interactants who are virtually co-present; “overhearing” possible at 20 meters||Interacting avatars chat in a public area about teaching practices in SL|
|Private Messaging Private Voice/Call||Two interactants; may or may not be virtually co-present||One participant asks another for her location in SL|
|Group Chat (only members of the group have access to the communication)||Multiple members of the group; may or may not be virtually co-present||A group member announces that an event is about to begin Members of a group discuss a guest speaker’s lecture, adding information, assessments|
|Group Notice||Group officers to group members||Group owner sends a notice of an upcoming event to its members.|
|Group Proposal||Group officers to group members||The group members are asked to vote on a resolution|
|Streaming Audio||One (real life Broadcaster) to Many (virtually co-present recipients); typically, recipients have ability to participate in additional interaction via chat messaging or using voice||The video stream from a “real life” conference is streamed into SL & recipients participate in Q&A|
It has been demonstrated how SL might be used by LSI researchers to support and extend their professional collaboration and networking efforts. A second way that SL can be used by LSI scholars is as a new site for LSI educational activities.
Educational uses of SL have been the foci of much preliminary research. Three critical elements for engagement in learning in the digital age have been found to be interactivity, connectivity, and access (Dresang & McClelland, 1999), and these are the three key characteristics of SL. Of particular interest to LSI scholars, the research suggests that such a learning environment enhances student engagement through a sense of shared experiences, offers students and teachers opportunities for collaboration, and provides access to information about the virtual environment and user-created content (FitzGerald, 2007; see also Nardi, 2005). In research specifically focused on education and learning, Yee (2006) collected online survey data from 30,000 users of Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) over a three year period, and the findings in dicate that users are willing to invest considerable time and emotional energy in virtual environments, that the relationships people make playing an MMORPG are real, and that users are more than willing to collaborate to accomplish a goal (see also de Bruyn, 2004).
Prensky (2003) argues that students involved in 3-D virtual worlds for extended periods of time are highly motivated because they are learning in profound ways, including decision-making, synthesis of information, and understanding complex systems. Research on pedagogical agents suggests that the presence of avatars enhances engagement and learning beyond computer-mediated communication without such agents (Atkinson, Mayer, & Merrill, 2005; Moreno, Mayer, Spires, & Lester, 2001). Two examples of classes in SL are shown in Figure 9, a Project Management class and a Genetics class. The Project Management class was conducted in a more traditional classroom setting (albeit outdoors) and involved a highly interactive text chat format. In the Genetics class, students were taken on a virtual field trip by teleporting to a science island in SL featuring intera ctive animated demonstrations of gene transfer using virtual rabbits.
One useful theoretical framework frequently used by LSI researchers and educators is that of improvisation (Goffman, 1956; Schechner, 1977; Goodman, 1973; Bateson, 1993; Gray & VanOosting, 1996; Jarmon, 1996a). Performative strategies for engaged learning including narrative and improvisation (Bateson, 1993; Taussig, 1993) are being widely used in SL. Role play and improvisation are used in training emergency personnel and nurses at the virtual Ann Meyers Medical Center in SL, and for interacting with reflexive architecture as well as with other avatars (Brouchoud, 2006; and see Akrich, 1992 on “technical objects”). It has also been suggested that such immersive virtual experiences can have a direct relationship to cha llenges met outside of the virtual world itself (De Castell & Jenson, 2007) including, for example, vocational learning (Hamalainen, 2008; and see “extensible self” in Adams, 2005). In addition, numerous educational simulations have been created, including Harvard University’s law course, Stanford University’s virtual operating and emergency rooms, and Britain’s National Health Service’s virtual hospital (Stein, 2007). Other examples of educational simulations in SL include the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Virginia Tech Memorial, the Van Gogh Virtual Museum, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Genome Island simulation, where a protein’s amino acid sequence has been used to generate music (Everts, 2007, 49).
LSI researchers and educators alike who share common archival data and class materials could utilize the SL “Group” tools to support one another and their students. The Group tool allows for communication between many users with similar interests; for example, the Educators Coop members use the Group tool, and another active Group is the Librarians of SL. The latter Group consists of real life librarians who collaborate in SL to provide reference services to users and to create a library community in the virtual world. Members of Librarians of SL host seminars, training sessions, classes, and events such as Banned Books Week, and they also staff a volunteer virtual reference desk at Info Island. Groups communicate with each other through Group Chats, they send announcements, vote on proposals, and can own land together. Many groups own islands in SL, and they can customize their land to limit access to members of their particular group, thereby providing an increased level of security or privacy.
Groups of avatars can also host a variety of educational activities in SL ranging from social to professional. An example of a social event is a theme event such as an 80’s prom night at a dance club. Another type of event might be an SL training session such on how to build a waterfall or Scripting 101. Aside from SL training sessions, some groups host professional development. The American Sociological Association, for example, hosted a 2007 annual convention panel session in SL about the social impacts of technology in SL. Panelists submitted papers and winning researchers presented their work on a virtual panel to a virtual audience.
Thus, SL can be used by LSI researchers for collaboration and by LSI educators as a new site for teaching and learning activities, including sharing archiving teaching materials. A third way that LSI scholars can use SL is as an interesting site to conduct research on new forms of computer-mediated social interaction.
Research on shared virtual environments (SVEs) and on collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) is particularly relevant to LSI concerns because this research examines participants’ sense of presence, co-presence, and place-presence. However, these same features become somewhat problematic in the case of social virtual worlds since most groups being studied were artificially created. Much of the work on SVEs has been limited to small groups of participants (Sonnenwald, 2006), timed and coordinated events (Nilsson, Heldal, Schroeder, & Axelsson, 2001), and in isolated group environments (Spante, Axelsson, & Schroeder, 2006). Nevertheless, research on SVEs and CVEs support the theoretical tenant that virtual worlds are being used as collaborative work technologies and, therefore, are already of interest to some LSI researchers who, along with colleagues in sociology and cognitive science, have formed the Embodied Research Group in SL, shown in Figure 10. One of the first difficult challenges for the Embodied Research Group has been to attempt to begin identifying the characteristics of what “embodiment” might mean when people extend their presence into an open virtual world like SL.
Generally, in LSI approaches, we might ask how interaction emerges and is negotiated in virtual face-to-face interaction among avatars. That is, we might say, again speaking generally, that an interaction only exists (comes into being) when avatars are “doing” “being interactants.” These “doings” are empirically observable behaviors and must be so because they are designed and displayed - albeit virtually - for recipients’ orientation to and uptake of them (following Sacks, 1984). Even in 3-D virtual worlds like SL, the behaviors/performances have to be visually and/or aurally available for detection by virtually co-present others (or by possible LSI analysts after-the-fact).
Hutchby and Tanna (2008) have conducted an analysis using standard CA methods (Conversation Analysis) on 2-D text-based communication and found that interactants construct their turns in sequential ways that are in some ways different and yet share some similarities with co-present verbal conversation. In SL, as we have seen, text-based chat and instant-messaging (IM) are also two of multiple forms of communicative resources available to participants. Thus, in LSI, using recordings of naturally occurring virtual human interaction, we could also make use of empirical observation of instances of virtual face-to-face interaction, particularly of sequential behaviors, typically at a micro-scale (see Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974; Hopper, Koch, & Mandelbaum, 1986; Schegloff, 1995).
To explore what it might mean from an LSI perspective to be “virtually co-present” presents a number of very complex challenges, and this theme cannot be fully addressed here. However, researchers examining collaborative virtual environments are particularly interested in the relationship between co-presence, the sense of being with other people, and place-presence, the feeling that a virtual environment is a place (Steed, Slater, Sadagic, Bullock, and Tromp, 1999). To measure co-presence and place-presence experiments are conducted with small groups of participants where they are typically asked to perform a short problem-based task such as solving a puzzle (Sonnenwald, 2006; Steed et al., 1999). The act of solving a puzzle is thought to give participants a shared experience, which in turn leads them to report higher feelings of co-presence with one another.
Interestingly, Lucy Suchman’s research on human-machine communication has provided a useful framework whereby LSI researchers could explore the relationships between everyday embodied communicative practices and the design of the socio-technical systems in which they can occur (1987; 2002). The construct of embodiment may also be of interest for LSI researchers when explored through the lens of the interactions of avatars (of mixed-gender and mixed species) with virtual objects, landscapes, sounds, and spatial constructs. Furthermore, as illustrated in Figure 11, the individual SL user’s connectivity within a so-called socio-technical system includes interacting with other people via their avatars, using a computer, monitor screen, keyboard, headset, and computer mouse with hands, body, and mind. All these elements also become parts of an extended system of experience and i nteraction, and they constitute, following Lave and Wenger, what might be called a complex situated learning environment (Lave & Wenger, 1991). A complex situated learning environment, however constituted, has been a traditional focus for LSI scholars.
Communication - whether in the real world or in the 3-D virtual world - has been called, after all, the “practical discipline" (Craig, 1989). Virtual public meetings, group decision-making, and concepts of virtual collaboration and interaction provide useful tools for LSI researchers and educators, and these kinds of human activities similarly provide possible sites for extension of our knowledge about communication, methods, and theory. The intellectual traditions within which models for LSI research have evolved often invoke social constructionist frames. There is a direct link between such social constructivist traditions and communicative practice. As communication theorists, sociologists, and philosophers of language have long argued, communication “is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed” (Carey, 1989, 23; Burke, 1935). T herefore, what kinds of questions could LSI scholars pose concerning virtual interaction and virtual collaboration that could significantly advance our understanding?
For example, LSI researchers could examine closely the empirically observable sequential behaviors that emerged from tentatively labeled instances of particular segments of virtual interaction where “collaboration” appears to be occurring to the participants themselves. It is important to reiterate that it will be the interactants themselves who, through their behaviors, provide the substantive evidence of whether or not “collaboration” is occurring; that is, as we know, the evidence that matters in LSI arises first from the participants own communicative behaviors in regard to one another’s behaviors as captured by the recording devices, whether text transcripts or digital video recordings of the virtual interactions in SL.
While in some ways similar to real life face-to-face interaction in that virtual participants seem to be improvising on real life communicative practices (and as yet the relationship between the “real” and the “virtual” is far from being clearly understood), virtual face-to-face interaction, generally, involves an ecology of actions including chat and speech, virtual movement, virtual gaze direction, virtual touch, virtual proximity, and a whole range of multimodal communicative resources and their relationship with one another through time as they unfold in real time (for face-to-face ecology of interaction see, e.g., Goodwin, 1980; Goodwin, 1986; Goodwin & Goodwin, 1986; Jarmon, 1996b).
Of course, the questions posed by LSI can be quite fine, delicate, and complex -- yet ultimately quite orderly (Goffman, 1983; Sacks, 1984; Jefferson, 1983). For example, an LSI approach to interactions in SL might look closely not only at the language that interactants utter for important features of grammar (e.g., pronoun use: we/us/our; they/them/their; and you/your), or syntax, or semantics that appear to be getting some interactional work done, but it might also look at the sequence of those utterances and instances of repair, alignment, preference structures, and so forth (e.g., Pomerantz, 1984; Ochs, Schegloff, & Thompson, 1996; Lerner, 1991; Hutchby & Tanna, 2008). These language features cannot, of course, be separated from their particula r in-the-moment performative features such as prosody, repetition, poetics (e.g., see Hopper & Glenn, 1994); nor can they be analyzed outside of the immediate local context of the particular interactional sequence. Some new elements to investigate in the SL virtual world might include collaborative activities like the sequential collaborative building of virtual structures, special movement elements such as flying and teleporting, and scripted gestures that include holding hands, hugging, and more intimate physical interactions.
When the LSI research topic is virtual collaboration, for example, an LSI approach might anticipate that some of the language used by interactants in a segment that appears to involve decision-making would likely exhibit indexicality of language (e.g., Silverstein, Blommaert, Caton, Koyama, & Tsitsipis, 2004). That is, particular utterances and sequences might display sequential references to something like an “objective” of the collaboration, or might invoke co-interactants’ earlier utterances regarding a position or stance regarding alternative possible “solutions.” To use Sacks’ formulation, earlier utterances can be dragged onto the conversation floor for revisiting (1992). Interestingly, in SL, the chat text can quite literally be copied and pasted (“dragged”) onto the conversational floor; for that matter, the unfolding chat text can be visually represen ted in three dimensions unfolding above the heads of the interactions as in the case of a virtual research design being conducted in SL by the MIT Media Lab on the rhetorical persuasive force of unfolding arguments in a speech. In this case, LSI approaches might be concerned with the rhetorical force of certain language (depending on how co-interactants orient to such language), or sensitivity to language that “indexes” something expected-to-be-recognized by the recipients of such an utterance.
LSI researchers might also investigate how indexicality is being used to mark membership by interactants involved in virtual collaboration segments. The communicative resources used by interactants include not only specific language, but also whatever is visually and/or aurally available to the virtual co-interactants, including virtual artifacts. Such indexical markers or symbols include, for example, virtual clothing, virtual hairstyles, even virtual look-alike avatars of cultural icons shared by the group (or not). Some elements of SL that might impact current LSI understanding of indexicality include the fact that avatars can display above their heads not only their names but their group affiliations, member-status, nicknames, and other identity markers. In addition, as we have seen, Group membership entails an array of additional communication tools and access to more levels of interaction.
Furthermore, in virtual interactions, how and when group members use communicative resources and structures like sequential deletion and the related use of resources in negotiation could be an important area for LSI researchers to explore. LSI approaches could also contribute to our existing understanding of virtual membership displays by exploring the situated embodied actions (Heath, 1984; Jarmon, 1996b) that interactants draw on to be “doing” “being a group member.” These virtual embodied displays are made visually available to other avatars and contribute to footing, alignment, proximity displays, channel-availability and access, and so forth. Although the 3-D technology has only begun to minimally mirror the fluidity of human movements, instances of observable “synchrony” would make an interesting collection to study closely, as well as instances of “asynchrony.” In the virtual world, both can be either scripted or spontaneous, adding a new dimension of complexity.
However, it is the experience of embodied social connection with others and the immediacy of social co-presence that users repeatedly reference, and these interactions suggest sites for future LSI research:
[from List 4.2]
C: I found that as Lenoi in SL, I have quickly developed a professional network of outstanding individuals and organizations...this is very exciting for me. I don't feel so isolated in my work.
[from List 3.0]
A: …I popped into an orientation island and was immediately struck by the sheer enormity of the possibilities and, for reasons I still don't understand, I hit the MAP button, picked an out of the way SIM, and teleported. I just decided to explore. There I had the great fortune to meet an exceptional person and we became fast friends. That's when it hit me. The graphics, building, clothes and all the other cool stuff is nothing unless you have a meaningful human emotional experience to go with it. For me, that means with another person.
A user’s ability to view or observe his/her own avatar while engaged in interaction adds an additional perspective to interaction research. Recent research in neuroscience and psychology has suggested that a network of mirror neurons in the human brain constitutes an experiential “simulation” and provides the basis for empathic understanding of one another in interpersonal relationships and thus in collaboration (Gallese, Eagle & Migone, 2007; Freedberg & Gallese, 2007; Gallese & Lakoff, 2005). This research may have critical implications for some special needs populations. For example, stroke victims visiting the protected virtual area in SL for people with disabilities called SL Dreams have reported that the experience of seeing themselves walking aided in their recovery (Stein, 2007).
When regarding small groups of people who are co-present with one another in group meetings, another LSI communicative element that could warrant study is their physical (albeit virtual) face-to-face proximity to one another during, for example, a virtual interview as shown in Figure 12. We see three avatars seated at a virtual table and one’s hands indicate the avatar is typing text or chatting. Recall that in SL, regardless of the physical location of one’s own avatar, one can have one sense of “moving closer” to another avatar by zooming in with the camera control. Proximity can become, in a sense, a fluid or moving indicator, during a virtual interaction; and this phenomenon makes “proximity” problematic in interesting new ways.
In-depth LSI study and analyses would be helpful because there are other dimensions of proximity in virtual space, and numerous elements to consider from an LSI perspective include footing, F-formations, and sensory access to one another’s communication modalities wherein participants display use of these resources in the on-going interaction (see Kendon, 1982; Kendon, 1990; Birdwhistell, 1970). Within the virtual technology design of SL, text chat is “readable” out to a distance of 20 meters, and voice chat grows fainter even as one’s avatar turns and faces away from the current speaker. However, as had been shown, an entirely new visual dimension to interaction has been provided in SL through the virtual camera functions (essentially, an avatars vision). For example, an adjustment allows for one to center your “eyes and ears” on a specific speaker and hear clearly, regardless of the spatial distance of one’s own avatar from that speaker (within certain broader limits). Furthermore, one can just as easily center one’s view on an avatar or object behind one’s own avatar. So hearing and seeing are no longer necessarily tied to physical proximity.
Virtual participants can also control access and availability to their presence in SL, thereby using the physical elements of virtual face-to-face interaction themselves as resources for doing communicative work. For example, in SL, an avatar can “wear” a sensing device called a HUD (heads up display) that notifies that user whenever any avatar approaches within a set number of meters. The SL Friends List notifies users when someone on their list has logged-in to SL (indicating that they are now available for interaction) or has logged-out of SL (they are no longer available for interaction).
Similarly, visually available or other sensory input available to participants can index (rightly or wrongly) membership in various identity groups at a macro-scale, for example gender, age, height, and so forth. Ambiguity itself can and does play an important role in some kinds of virtual interactions. These communicative components can be at play at both the micro- and the macro-levels, presenting an element of inescapable-ness to the interaction (for example, potential profiling). Research on stereotyping priming effects, gender displays, identity, and even cross-species avatars is already underway. From a feminist perspective, questions have been raised concerning social interaction analysts’ almost total reliance on participants’ orientations to macro-level identity aspects like gender (Stokoe & Smithson, 2001). However, LSI approaches might argue that still, at the very least, at a more subtle but eventually e mpirically-observable level, some “noticing” or orientation to an input such as virtual gender must be displayed by co-participants in order for LSI analysts to formulate claims about gender’s function or influence in a particular virtual interactional instance (Sacks, 1984).
People are improvising from patterns of behavior newly re-interpreted in virtual social spaces filled with new tools. Interactants connect, build relationships (Nardi, 2005), pursue objectives, and act with embodied purpose; in some cases, communities of practice are forming or re-establishing themselves in virtual spaces (Wenger, 1998). These performative capabilities extended into virtual worlds include a wide range of social change activity (for example, Non-Profit Commons, Educators Coop, Health Island, Commonwealth, and kiva.org) and warrant further study (following Conquergood, 1991; Turner, 1982). The improvised discourse emerging from virtual social interactions in SL reflects the inventive, poetic, and pragmatic nature of people with a need to communicate an utterance such as:
[from List 9.0]
A: I'm gestating myself. I'll let you know how it goes.
Such an utterance might have at one time understandably been characterized along the lines of Chomsky’s (1957, 15) “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously” as grammatically correct but semantically nonsensical.  However, in this instance, the person is referring to a gestation script purchased in SL that animates one’s avatar to reproduce the virtual impression of pregnancy, with special features (“Baby-in-Tummy”). The “baby” in this case was the person’s alternate avatar form. People are improvising on prior patterns and constructs, and they are “languaging into being” new discursive expressions to articulate, sometimes in forms that are poetic, that which is experiential and virtually new (see Jefferson, 1996; Hopper & Glenn, 1994). As Suchman observed, “a frame of artful int egration emphasizes the ways in which new things are made up out of reconfigurations and extensions to familiar environments and forms of action” (2002, 144).
Users and organizations within SL also use a variety of Web 2.0 (social networking) Internet applications to support their virtual world activities, and the emerging communication practices among users, small groups, and larger organizations, including the corporations who are operating in SL, could likely become interesting sites for LSI study. For example, members of large groups in SL such as the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) in SL and the Librarians of SL use social networking tools including Google Groups, Flickr, and Wordpress blogs to communicate about and to organize their SL activities. YouTube is another technology used by many participants and groups in SL to share tutorials, communicate about virtual campuses, and to communicate using their machinima movies (SL screencast function). Other general interest SL groups use email listservs to communicate between groups and individuals; for example, the SL Education listserv (SL ED) is sponsored by Linden Lab and has approximately 3,800 members. The interactive SLED list is used to announce events, grant proposals, calls for journal submissions, and as a place to find technical or pedagogical support between users.
Communication at work and job interviews in particular have long been sites for LSI research, and these everyday human activities are becoming more pervasive in the virtual world of SL. For example, TMP, North America’s largest independent recruitment advertising agency, offers interactive corporate recruitment capabilities through their virtual presence in SL: “TMP Island is a space where recruiters will be able to network with prospective candidates, host events, conduct employee presentations, and even build virtual replicas of their real-world offices for unprecedented interaction with job seekers” (TMP Worldwide Brings Recruitment to Second Life, 2007). People around the world continue to build increasing amounts of interactive, user-created content in SL. Future LSI researchers will be able to conduct research on interaction, language acquisition, and language immersion with, for example, many of the a lready existing 27 language-specific virtual islands. SL has a robust language translation functionality (derived from Babbler) that warrants investigation. Finally, medical research and training is a rapidly developing sector in SL. LSI researchers working in the areas of doctor-patient, doctor-nurse, and nurse-patient interactions could already begin pilot studies on the interaction already occurring in SL, for example, at the Nursing Education Simulation NESIM training site.
While recent research suggests that there is a sustainable trend for users to continue investing their time and capital in SL, user acceptance of 3-D virtual world environments may be one of the more critical challenges to overcome (Fetscherin & Lattemann, 2007, 20). Researchers and educators want more stability in the software platform, faster functionality, minimized or less expensive initial equipment requirements, easier-to-learn scripting and building tools, increased ability to import ready-made objects from other programs, simpler ways to stream media, and more seamless integration of most other standard-use software products into the SL virtual environment. As mentioned earlier, to begin to address such challenges, IBM, Linden Lab (the creators of Second Life), and leaders from the international information technology sector formed a consortium to establish global standards for virtual environments (IBM and Linden Lab, 2007). The existence of the consortium also indicates the robustness of the virtual world as a growing large-scale pervasive space for human interaction.
In conclusion, although many challenges exist, the 3-D virtual world technology of Second Life provides tools for LSI researchers that can support their collaboration, education, and research activities. SL can be used to enhance collaboration with colleagues and extend some very practical research and teaching operations into virtual spaces. As virtual worlds become more mainstream and as the underlying technology becomes more transparent, the allure of connecting geospatially-distant LSI researchers, teachers, students, and community members through virtual environments is expected to attract even more learning organizations across sectors including corporate, public, nonprofit, and educational institutions. LSI research may also contribute to people’s transition into virtual world environments and to our understanding of how individuals and groups improvise and negotiate their virtual communication practices.
 Virtual worlds are being used for therapeutic purposes, for example, for people with autistic disorders (Mangan, 2008; and see “mirrored flourishing” in Au, 2008). However, the virtual world technology of Second Life actually allows for several people to be “embodied” all into a single avatar. This is the case, for example, with the avatar known as Wilde Cunningham, and this example raises interesting questions about social interaction involving a virtual participant who is representing multiple actual persons; a new level of complexity is added to the idea of co-present participants:
Wilde Cunningham is an avatar controlled by a group of nine adults with cerebral palsy (and their nurse) at the day-care program they attend in Massachusetts. The group members are aged 30 to 70 and comprise four men and five women. Most of them are wheelchair users and rely on their caretakers for almost all aspects of their daily lives. Yet in Second Life they have built their own houses, have pets, gardens, even a baseball field. They also have many close friends and a large social network. “Second Life gives me the chance to be the person I feel I was born to be,” says John S, 32, one of the group. “Being in Second Life is how I imagine an innocent man who had been locked up wrongly feels when he is finally set free. In Second Life I get to call the shots.” For John S, the virtual world is all about being free from his disability but for Simon Stevens, who also suffers from cerebral palsy, it is equally about making disabled people visible. (Deeley, 2007).
 Appreciation is due to this issue’s editor, Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz, for bringing to my awareness the fact that Dell Hymes wrote a poem using Chomsky's sentence as its title. Hymes was demonstrating that context is more important than syntax. Additionally, in his collection entitled The Night Mirror (1971, 38), the poet John Hollander composed the following poem and dedicated it to Chomsky:
|Curiously deep, the slumber of crimson thoughts
While breathless in stodgy viridian,
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
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